Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 37 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Fumio Goushi, Shinichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 123-134
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to construct a conventional motor achievement test battery based on pass or fail criteria for preschool children. Thirty seven items were examined on reliability and objectivity of both observed value (0V) and measured value (MV); agreement between OV and MV, and discriminating power of items. The thirty seven items were selected from 223 items by taking into account various conditions like a hierarchical structure in fundamental motor ability proposed by Gallahue, possibility of behavior observation, difficulty of task, and so on. As a result, twenty eight items representing each motor pattern of locomotion,manipulation, and stability domains, were reselected. For the purpose mentioned above, using factor analytic procedures, eight motor pattern factors for three domains were extracted and interpreted as folow;: 1) walking-jumping, 2)hopping, 3) climbing for the locomotion type, 1) catching, 2) throwing further, 3) throwing to aim for the manipulation type, 1) maintaining posture, 2) stability during action for the stability type. Examining the factorial validity in addition to taking practicability into consideration, 16 items were chosen at first and 9 items were chosen from them next. Because these test batteries showed a positive relation with another motor test on which performances were measured by CGS scales, they were considered to be practical and effective to estimate motor ability. Finally,assessment scales for two test batteries were constructed, using data of 3564 preschool children aged from three to six.
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  • Shuichi Okada, Kazufumi Hirakawa, Komei Ikuta, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Eizo ...
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 135-143
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study examined the difference in the force and EMG characteristics for the limb muscles with respect to growth-development and aging. Ten boys (age: 10.6 ± 1.1 yrs.), 8 adult men (25.3 ± 3.2 yrs.) and 7 elderly men (67.6 ± 2.4 yrs.) served as subjects for the study. The subjects were asked to perform isometric flexion and extention for elbow and knee at each force level of 25, 50 and 75% of their maximum voluntary contractions (MVC). Surface EMGs were recorded from the biseps brachii, triceps brachii, biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles,respectively. Integrated EMG (IEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) values were computed from the recorded EMGs at each of the three different force levels. Results were as follows: 1) IEMG values of the extensors (triceps brachii and rectus femoris muscles) for the adult group was significantly smaller than those of the boy and elderly groups at all force levels. 2) MPFs in both extensors and flexsors for the adult group were significantly larger than those for the boy and elderly groups at 75% and 100% MVC force levels. It was concluded that there was an aged-related difference in the force and EMG responces obtained from the limb muscles. This difference may be due to the effects of a different level of fast twitch fiber activation in force production.
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  • Kazutake Kawai, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Tatsuya Kasai
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 145-158
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present study was to reveal the functional significance of the pretibial (TA) muscle EMG activities prior to voluntary soleus (Sol) contraction while standing. In addition, we have tried to improve understanding of segmental mechanisms involved in the anticipatory postural adjustment by means of H reflex technique. The results obtained from the present study were as follows: 1) The TA activities preceding voluntary Sol contractions were highly reproducible. 2) If the subject performed forward lean of his body voluntarily during the foreperiod, the TA activity were reduced or almost ceased according to degrees of forward lean of the body. This result was thought to indicate that the TA activities are related to the anticipatory postural adjustment and the lean of the body forward direction. 3) We compared the differences between two types of motor tasks. One of them was required to contract the Sol in a few seconds (UH task), and the other was required to relax the Sol as soon as possible after rising on their toe tips (UD task). In the UH task, the duration of the TA activities increased and the appearance of the Sol activities delayed. 4) The TA and the Sol H reflexes were changed in amplitude parallel according to the EMG activity of the homonymous muscles. Thus, they were reciprocally organized such as facilitation of TA H reflex and inhibition of the Sol H reflex were observed during TA activity, and vice versa during Sol activity. These results strongly suggest that the organization of the segmental motor systems during driving phase of the postural adjustment were reciprocally controlled. 5) The peak times of TA facilitation and Sol inhibition were differentially appeared, and the latter always preceded.
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  • Tetsuya Yoshida, Manabu Totsuka, Tatsuki Inoue, Isao Sugawara, Koichi ...
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 159-171
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-Me),urea-nitrogen (Urea-N) and creatinine (Cr) excretion on athletes during exercise training period.Experiments were performed on 30 athletes (the group of athletes included 9 long distance runners as training for aerobic performance (Runner), 9 short distance runners as tranining for anaerobic performance (Sprinter), 12 rugby football players as training for aerobic and anaerobic performance (Rugger)) and 11 sedentary controls (Control). The subjects ingested a meat-free diet for 4 days. For analysis of urinary 3-Me, Urea-N and Cr in subjects, urine sample over a 24-h period were collected on fourth day of meat-free diet period. The main results obtained were as followed: 1) Urinary 3-Me and 3-Me to Cr ratio found in athletes were significantly higher than that found in Control. However, a similar Urea-N to Cr ratio was found in Control and athletes except Runner. 2) In Sprinter, 3-Me to Cr ratio was significantly higher than that found in the other groups, but there was no significant correlations between 3-Me and Cr. 3) In Runner, Urea-N to Cr ratio was significantly higher than that found in the other groups, but there was no significant correlations between Urea-N and Cr. 4) In Rugger, 3-Me, Urea-N and Cr tended to be higher than that found in the other groups,but 3-Me to Cr and Urea-N to Cr ratios were similar to that found in Runner and Sprinter,respectively. The significant correlations between 3-Me and Cr and between Urea-N and Cr were observed similarly in Rugger as found for Control. These results suggest that urinary indices of protein catabolism is dependent on the types of chronic exercise training in athletes.
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  • Rie Yamada
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 173-181
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper was to clarify the control and treatment of the German prisoners-of-war and the prisoners' Turnen and sports activities in the Matsuyama P.O.W. (prisoners-of-war) Camp and the Bando P.O.W. Camp. The historical materials used for this paper were collected mainly from the Matsuyama P.O.W. Camp newspaper "Lagerfeuer" and the Bando P.O.W. Camp newspaper "Die Baracke". The findings were summarized as follows: There was a big difference in the German prisoners' activities in these camps by the difference in the policy of control and treatment to the German prisoners. The head of the Matsuyama P.O.W. Camp controlled the German prisoners severely and was not generous with their sports activities. Although the German prisoners hoped to practice various kinds of Turnen and sports activities, they could not perform various activities. The head of the Camp did not permit the interchange between the prisoners and the local people in Matsuyama. In the Bando P.O.W. Camp, the German prisoners were treated very warmly by the order of the head of the Camp. The head of the Camp was generous in German prisoners' activity. In this camp the German prisoners practiced various systematic Turnen and sports activities. The head of the Camp promoted culture interchange between the German prisoners and the local people to learn knowledge and skill of the German prisoners. The prisoners' activities gave a significant influence on sports in Tokushima. It is said that the policy of the head of the Bando P.O.W. Camp which treated the German prisoners very warmly without constraining the prisoners with severe rules activated the prisoners and allowed their contribution to the development of Tokushima. It can be considered that the policy of the head of the Bando P.O.W. Camp gives some suggestions to themes of present education such as human right thoughts, peace education and "lifelong learning".
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  • Etsuro Satomi
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 183-194
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The education system reform of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repubilics, which took 5 years from starting at 1985, is completed at 1990. The purpose of this study is to make researches in how the Soviet physical education was revised by this education system reform and how they solved problems that Soviet physical education was facing. By this study, auther wished to clear the new position of physical education in the new education system of Soviet and to investigate the new mission of it. It is possible to point out following special features of the new physical education. 1. By the rapid development of scientific technology, high scientific technological and high information-oriented society will come at 21 century. They expected that laborers should be managed by the electronic computer for information management and live in the mental stress to be strained. They reached the conclusion that the harmonious growth, that is sound mentally and physically, of Soviet nation may be more important matter. So they decided to introduce new sport activities of 8 to 10 hours into school education in order to complete physical education. 2. In order to improve the physical education which was wasted as the preparation for the GTO ready for labor and military of Soviet, they decided to remove the GTO from physical education and to introduce sport activities into physical education for making it more pleasant work and they will motivate students to sport activities in life. 3. The training system for teachers of physical edudation is to be improved to make better a ability of teachers in physical education. 4. For the completion of physicnl education, they complete the establishments and equipments of physical education to be progressed. It can be pointed out that Soviet is planning to improve the quality of physical education.With this education system reform, Soviet will have special features of the physical education reform that is based upon a long-range plan for coming 21 century to emphasize physical education.
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  • Naoki Okamoto
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 195-202
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the performance time and space cognition of a ball game player when dodging a player in the defense.The subjects were 8 players ranging from 18 to 22 years in age. The method used in this study was to have the subjects run toward a photoelectric cell, and turn right or left depending on a light from a signal board. This light was controlled by a control-box when the subjects crossed the photoelectric cell. Variations of 1, 2 and 3 m were used for the distance from the photoelectric cell to the signal board. The performance time as well as the running speed of the subjects were measured both when the signal from the board was given and when no signal was given. When the distance from the cell to the board was 1 m the running speed of the subjects dropped. However, this did not happen when the distance was 3 m. In the 3 m distance no significant differences were observed in the performance time of the subjects whether the signal was given or not. However, when the distance was 1 or 2 m significant differences could be observed in the performance time of the subjects depending on whether the signal had been given or not. The results of this study seem to indicate that from a 3 m distance to the position of a player in the defense, player can easily run and dogne the defense without dropping their speed.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 203-206
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 207-218
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 219-223
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 224-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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