The effect of orifice located in a shock tube is studied experimentally by using pressure probes, and a characteristics method is applied to solve the flow field by taking the experimental orifice condition into account. The orifice condition used is derived from a modified JENNY's formula for the pressure drop, with the additional mass and energy conservation equations. The results show that calculations including the effect of orifice agree with the experimental pressure variation.
Inviscid real gas flows in shock layers in front of blunt bodies in hypersonic flow are analyzed. It is concluded that the shock shapes for real gas differ slightly from these for perfect gas, but difference of detachment distance between these two cases is considerable. Nonequilibrium flows of dissociating diatomic gas along the sreamline on the body surfaces are calculated by using properly prescribed pressure distributions. BRAY'S sudden freezing criterion for nozzle flow real gas flows, and the existence of phenomenon of freezing of the dissociation reaction is probed. And numerical calculations of general nonequilibrium flows are carried out to support these results.