地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
70 巻 , 10 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 後藤 寛
    1997 年 70 巻 10 号 p. 625-641
    発行日: 1997/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿では日本中の都市から従業者密度によって都心を抽出し,空間形状の特徴を数値化した指標を用いて,衛星都市や県庁所在地のような都市のタイプごとにどのような傾向を持っか,また日本の諸都市の都心がどのように空間形状の特徴によって分類できるかを分析した.事業所統計調査の4次メッシュ集計データを用い,全国から135の領域を抽出して,四つのオリジナルな指標によって空間形状や中心地点への集中程度を測った.
    その結果,商業とオフィスの従業者比が都心の性格を表し,オフィスの従業者比が高いほど中心性が高いことを示した.三大都市圏では大都市の都心はオフィス機能に特化し,衛星都市は商業機能に特化しているとともに空間形状がコンパクトであるという特徴を持つ.また県庁都市の都心は一般地方都市と比べてオフィスの従業者比が高く,従業者密度が地理的に均質である.また, 1980年から1990年の10年間の比較分析から地方都市の郊外化の進行を確認した.
  • 谷口 智雅
    1997 年 70 巻 10 号 p. 642-660
    発行日: 1997/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    水質分析資料がない時代の水環境の復元方法として,本研究では文学作品中の水に関する文章に着目した.隅田川を中心とし,東京における文学作品中の水に関する生物指標および視覚的な表現を抽出し,それを現在行われている水域類型区分にあてはめ,20世紀前半の東京の河川の水質を推定した.
    文学作品中の文章表現から推定した東京全体の水環境を見ると, 1920年頃にはすでに水質が悪化している河川や水路がかなり存在した. 1940年頃になると汚れた水域が増加しており, 1920年頃から1940年頃にかけて水質が一段と悪化していたことが,この方法により示された.同様の方法を用いて隅田川の水質を推定すると,すでに1905年には浅草付近で著しく汚れていた. 1915年になると,吾妻橋から清洲橋にかけて汚染が顕著で,白鬚橋や永代橋,佃大橋でも水質悪化を示すようになり,汚れた水域が拡大していた. 1935年になると,白鬚橋から永代橋にかけた全域で汚染が顕著になった.本稿では,得られた水質評価と土地利用あるいは工場数,人口変化との比較検討を行い,水質の悪化と人間活動が対応していることを示した.
  • 朴〓 玄
    1997 年 70 巻 10 号 p. 661-675
    発行日: 1997/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of direct and stable international linkages between nonmetropolitan cities in the international urban system between Korea and Japan in terms of banking transactions.
    The data used in this study were obtained from 24 banks in Korea, and the author analyzed the following four points: 1) the characteristics of locational trend of Korean banks from an international viewpoint; 2) the concentration patterns of international transactions with Japan; 3) the location of branch offices with overseas management functions; and 4) the features of linkages between Korean and Japanese cities.
    The results are summarized as follows: 1. A cluster analysis of domestic branch office location of Korean banks identified four types: national type, metropolitan type, regional type, and provincial type. Overseas branches of Korean banks have mostly been established by those headquartered in Seoul, and branches of foreign banks are concentrated in Seoul.
    2. Korean banks are classified into four types according to the location of overseas management office: one-center type, two-center type, three-center type, and decentralized type. An ANOVA analysis of the concentration of transactions with Japan by each type revealed that the linkages between Seoul and Tokyo are significantly stronger than those between other cities.
    3. Lorenz curves of office location show that branches with overseas functions are more concentrated in Seoul and Tokyo, and among the nonmetropolitan cites are relatively more heavily concentrated in Fukuoka, Taegu, and Pusan.
    4. Results from the case studies of two Korean banks headquartered in Taegu and Pusan are: 1) both banks have their overseas management offices in their headquarters, in contrast to other local banks which have their overseas management offices in Seoul; and 2) among the nonmetropolitan cities in Japan, both banks have also small-scale transactions with Fukuoka.
    5. In conclusion, linkages between nonmetropolitan cities in the international urban system are still weak, but the international business functions of branches in local cities are expected to promote regional economic development and to transform the structure of the international urban system.
  • 苅谷 愛彦, 佐々木 明彦, 鈴木 啓助
    1997 年 70 巻 10 号 p. 676-692
    発行日: 1997/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Microclimates and geomorphic processes on a wind-swept alpine slope (1, 805m asl) were evaluated on the basis of year-round observations of air temperature (1995 to 1996), ground temperatures (1995 to 1996), precipitation (1995 and 1996 summer), and wind velocity (1995 summer). Although the data were incomplete owing to mechanical problems with instruments, they are worth reporting. This is because few meteorological observatories are established in alpine areas in Japan. The followings are the main results of this study.
    Air temperature: The maximum monthly mean air temperature of 13.9°C was recorded in August. The first freeze-thaw day of autumn 1995 occurred in early October. Air temperature remained steadily subzero from mid-November to late April 1996, and the minimum monthly mean of 8.8°C occurred in February. The data during the winter, however, should be treated as reference values because of the possible effect of snow and the rime ice coat on the insolation shelter. In comparison with the free-air data over Akita, 135km north of Gassan, the records from the observation site are estimated to be about several degrees centigrade higher than the true values. The mean annual air temperature at the site is thus considered to be lower than 0.9°C.
    Ground temperatures: The maxima of the monthly mean ground temperature of 14.0°C and 13.9°C were recorded in August at depths of 2 and 20cm, respectively. A total of 15 freeze-thaw cycles took place at a depth of 2 cm from mid-October to mid-November. In contrast, no freeze-thaw cycle was recorded at a depth of 20cm in the autumn. Seasonal frost formed on the ground from mid-November to late April, and a total of 15 freeze-thaw cycles again occurred at a depth of 2cm from late April to mid-May.
    Wind velocity: The maximum monthly mean wind velocity of 13.3m s-1 was recorded in August. The appearance ratio of wind velocity over 5.0m s-1, attained 98%. The maximum hourly velocity was about 31m s-1, and strong winds were usually associated with the passing of cold/warm fronts and typhoons.
    Precipitation: The observed meteorological precipitation was converted into hydrological values. Total amounts from July to September 1995 and 1996 were 779.5mm and 620.9mm, respectively. The daily and hourly maxima during the two observation periods were 73.1mm and 23.2mm, respectively. Similar to strong winds, most strong rainfalls were related to the passing of cold/warm fronts and typhoons.
    Deflation scars several decimeters high well developed around the observation site. The meteorological records and our visual observations focusing on geomorphic processes imply that the retreat of such scars occurs intermittently from spring to autumn, although the contribution of deflation must also be evaluated.
  • 1997 年 70 巻 10 号 p. 693-698
    発行日: 1997/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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