Bezüglich der Müller-Lyerschen Figur sind bisher vier Regelmassigkeiten berichtet. Unter denen die erste und wichtigste ist das Maximumgesetz und die zweite das Konstanzgesetz. Allein durch unsre Nachprüfung über these zwei Gesetze stellte es sich heraus, dass beides in einigen Punkten der Berichtigung bedarf. wit formulieren sic ars folgend. Maximumgesetz: Die Täschungsgrösse bel der e-Figur mit nach einwarts gekehrten Schenkeln steigt schnell init der Verlangerung der Schenkeln auf und erreicht bel einer bestimmten Schenkellange ein Maximum, darn abet ninimt sie allmählich ab bis dahin, dass die Schenkelende beider Seiten zusammentreffen. Die Täuschungsgrösse bel der a-Figur init nach auswärts gekehrten Schenkeln wächst ebenso schnell mit der Verlängerung der Schenkeln an Doch nachdem sic ein Maximum erreicht, wieder sinkt sie schnell ab und schliesslich gent sie in die umgekehrte Tauschung uber Konstanzgesetz: Die Täuschungsgrösse ist konstant bel verschiedenen Schenkellange und Schenkeiwinkel (abet innerhalb 20°-90°), solange der Abstand zwischen Schenkelende beider Seiten konstant bleibt. Ein kleiner Kreis auf sonst homogenem Ferd erscheint etwa lebendiger und hervortretender ars seine TJmgebung. Und nicht die Linie, welche den Kreis for mt, sondern das ganze Innengebiet, welches mit der Linie begrenzt ist, besteht ars Figur vor dem Grunde. Köhler erklärte solche Erscheinung folgenderweise. m optischen Sektor ist die eiektrische Stromungsdichte durch das Kreisgebiet I hindurch viel grösser ars durch das Umgebungsfeld. Denn, verglichen mit der Umgebung, besitzt der Kreis erne geringe retinale Ausdehnung und doch durch das Kreisgebiet muss im ganzen, dem Satze von der Erhaltung der Elektrizität nach, die gleiche elektrische Verschiebung wie durch die Umgebung erfolgen. Damit gelingt es ihm die beschreibenden Begriffe Figur and Grund in die Funktion-Begriffe zu verändern. Figur und Grund haben darum die funktionell sachlichste Beziehung zueinander. Aber wieweit ist der Grundbereich um eine bestimmte Figur ringsum ausgedehnt? Darüber fand es sich durch Experimente, dass eine bestimmte einfache Figur auf sonst homogenem Feld den auf dem Durchmesser dreifach so grossen Grundbereich wie sie erfordert, um sie als Figur ungestört bestehen zu können. Diesen Tatbestand nennen wir Dreifach-Gesetz von Figur und Grund. Von hier aus kann man funktionell noch zwischen dem Grund und seinem Aussenbereich, dem Feld unterscheiden. Das Sehfeld enthalt daher sogar in der einfachsten Struktur dreierlei miteinader zusammenhängenden Momente. In bezug auf Stromungsdichte stellt das Feld ein psychophysisches Niveau dar und dementsprechend steht die Figur hoher, der Grund aber tiefer als ihum. Nicht nur die geschlossene Gestalt wie Kreis, sondern auch die nach einer Seite offenen Gestalten wie Dreieck oder Quadrat ohne eine Seite, erscheinen als Figur, nur dass sie an der nicht begrenzten Stelle direkt ohne Vermitellumg des Grundes in die Feld übergehen. Man kann deshalb in diesem Falle annehmen, dass die Strömungsdichte auch nach und nach gegen das Feld sich vermindert. Dasselbe gilt von Grund und Feld, weil zwischen ihnem auch keine Begrenzungslinie existiert.
Problem: The functional relation between the time-errors and the length of time intervals was investigated in detail by many authors, but comparatively little has been reported concerning the effect of stimulus durations. The purpose of the present study Was to observe the influence of stimulus duration upon time-errors in the discrimination of auditory intensities, limiting to the case in which the duration of first (standard) stimuli anti of second (variable) ar equal. Apparatus and procedure: The sound-source was a dynamic cone actuated by an electric tube oscillator. The frequency of tones was 800 v. d. with the exeception of Experiment XIII in which 100 v. d. was used. The temporal relations of stimuli were controlled by means of Aleumann's time-sense apparatus. The method of complete series was used in this study. The intensity of the standard stimuli was 6 Barkhausen phon with the exceptions of the Experiment XI, in which the standard was 3 phon, and of the Experiment XII, in which 9 phon was used as the standard, and in the Experiment XIII standard was not measured by phon. The stimulus durations were varied 1/4 to 21/2s econds. Os were graduate and undergraduate students in psychology and members in our psychological laboratory. The instructions required a judgment upon the second stimulus as stronger than, weaker than, or equal to the first with respect to the intensity. ResIdts: (1)The positive time-error increased (or the negative time-error decreased) with the increase in the length of stimlus durations. (2)When the time-interval between the pair of stimuli was extremely short or two stimuli connected directly without intervening time-interval, the reversed tendency also appeared. (3)According to my experiments, these tendencies seem to be due to the assimilation between the first tone and its neighbouring time-intervals.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine by the method of constant stimuli the effect (1) of instructions, and (2) of time intervals between the standard and the comparison stimuli, upon the distribution of judgments when equal weights are used for successive comparison. Experiment I The general procedure of this experiment as well as of the one following (Experiment II) was similar to that of Arons and Irwin. Ten cylindrical hardrubber weights of 100 g. each, arranged in pairs on a revolving table, were used as stimuli. The rhythm of lifting was controlled by means of a metronome set at 92 per minute. The experiment consisted of three series. In Series I, the observers were instructed simply to judge the second weight of each pair with respect to the first, using the categories, lighter, equal and heavier. In Series II, they were further instructed that the difference between the standard and the comparison stimuli was much increased, while in Series III, they were told that all the stimuli were of equal weight. Results: 1. Of the six observers who took part in the experiment, five showed a tendency to over-estimate, and one a tendency to under-estimate, the second of the Pair throuvhotit the three series. 2. The observers who had previous training in lifted weight experiments gave in the initial part of the experiment a greater number of differential judgments than the untrained observers, but this difference disappeared with the progress of the experiment. 3. There was also a tendency for the majority of observers not to give the same category of judgment twice in succession. Thus, the judgment of “lighter” was usually followed by the judgment of “heavier,” and vice versa. Only one observer gave judgments of equality, frequently in succession. 4. The effect of instruction was very conspicuous. The number of differential judgments obtained in Series II far exceeded that in Series I and III, the latter of which yielded more equality judgments than the other categories. Experiment II This experiment was divided into three parts. In Part I the time interval between the first and the second stimuli was 1.30 sec., in Part II, 1.95 sec. and in Part III, 3.25 sec. Results: 1. Only four out of twenty-nine observers who participated in Part I underestimated the second stimulus, while the remaining twenty-five over-estimated it. 2. Although there were great individual differences, on the whole the number of “heavier” judgments as compared with the number of “equal” as well as of “lighter” judgments tended to increase with the increase in the length of time intervals between the first and the second stimuli. 3. There were eases, however, where observers who made negative time errors (or positive time errors) with shorter time intervals committed positive time errors (or negative time errors) with longer time intervals.
When we learn foreign languages, we memorize the foreign words by pairing them with the corresponding words in our mother tongue. But when we try to recall the terms of such pairs according to the method of paired associates, it is usually easier to recall our national words from the presented foreign words than to recall in the reversed direction. This tendency is also seen in case of familiar words. As a matter of fact, when we compared the reaction of recalling our national words from German ones with that of recalling the German words from Japanese ones by using 100 common German words as materials and 8 psychologists as subjects in Experiment I, we found that the results were better in the former case than in the latter in respects both of reaction time and the rate of reproduction. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors which determine the asymmetry of the rate of reproduction of such simple thought-configurations (i. e. pairs of words in our case) by means of the method of paired associates. The procedure carried on throughout the experiments principally was this: The subjects were required to memorize the pairs of words consisting of several sorts of materials, and were subsequently asked to reproduce the one member of each pair when the other was given. The considerations of results about the asymmetry of the rate of reproductions in each experiment in connection with the qualities of materials used could be summarized as follows. On which of the two members of any pair sujects laid stress, and the influence of the order of the members at the time of memorizing were not important factors (Experiment II, IX, and X). Such pair of words, in fact, cohered phenomenally in one single whole and formed one single thought-configuration, but at the same time each articulated member had a strong independent character. For these articulated members, the character of being a part of such weak contigulation was only the secondary one, and their peculiar character rather consisted in their relation to the systems of their backgrounds. For instance, with regard to 18 in the pair like 18-S, the character that it was a number and lied between 17 and 19 in the ordinal series was more peculiar to it than the character that it was being connected with S. As regards S, the character that it was one member of alphabet was also peculiar. As mentioned above, it was no wonder that the pair like this, consisting phenomenally of two units, was indeed one single segregated, figure-like pattern, but the “Lucke-Erganzung” of this configuration was strongly influenced by the field structure including the background, and not determined by the force within this configuration. Dividing the meaningless syllables of equal sort in two groups, and pairing one group of them with meaningful syllables (a) and the other group with numerals (b), and of these groups repeatedly memorized. After being memorized completely, syllables in (a) had a meaning-character, while those in (b) had not. Then coupling again thus conditioned syllables in (a) and (b) in paires, we required the subjects to memorize these new paires and to reproduce them in accordance with the method of paired associates. The results showed that it was easier to reproduce syllables in (a) from the presented syllables in (b) than to reproduce in the reversed direction (Experiment VIII). In short, in the thought-configuration in which one of its articulated member has the systematized background and the other has not, the reproduction in accordance with the method of paired associates, namely “Lucke-Erganzung”, is more favourably achieved when the latter comes first into consciousness.
Experiments were performed on 3 kinds of .spiders waiting for games upon the spun webs. So far as the writer observed, all these animals could distinguish instinctively between eatables and uneatables, and show some different degrees of their inborn intellectualities in clearing the fields of the wastes and in managing the dead games or the living. The animals began to respond to them so variedly as one challenged directly against them with some blows by the fore-right-hand , while a second did with repeated vertical swings of its web, in contrast to the horizontal by a third. Even between two animals of one and the same class a remarkable individual difference could be perceived with regard to the precautions taken against the danger and their own procedures for the prizes, besides some traces of practice effects. All these facts tell us the true nature of several aspects of the animal's instinct.
This investigation was performed as a derivative from my latest work, “The Law of Pragnanz in the Process of Drawing Contour Figures,” published in Jap. J. Psychol. XII, 2, 1937 1. The infants, about five years of age, who scarcely are thought to have learned how to write the strokes of Japanese letters or have often experienced the likes of it, when instructed to copy a complex Japanese letter, write it naturally according to their general and common tendencies that can be regarded as subjecting to the same factors as of the process of drawing contour figuresthe pregnancy of Upper-and Left-side that accord to the structures of hands and arms, and the psychological factors-Cartesian Coordinate, Size, Enclosure and Centricity. (of. my work above-mentioned.) 2. We adults too, in our writing process, have common and general orders, that are also subjected to the factors shown in 1, and considerably resemble to those of the infants, except one point which is shown in 3; thencefrom, we come to the conclusion that the orders of writing the strokes of Japanese letters in adults are not such as formed merely by the ideas of some ancient people and only learned by posterity, but have a common origin with infants, which is natural and good to our psychological and physiological constructions. 3. But the orders in adults are different from the infants', in the following respect that in the former the physiolo-mechanical factors are much more dominating than the psychological ones. Concerning this fact, it is possible to assume that in adults usually a series of letters are written successively with considerable speed and regularity, and not one letter only as is done by infants or done when we draw a figure, consequently the factors of Upper-and Left-side become the more powerful conditions. On this point, however, still more experimentation is needed.
An apparatus which generates sound from a sound-picture is often more useful for the study of psychological acoustics than a sound recording apparatus like an oscillograph. The authors give the description of their own sound generating system by means of the photoelectric tube in two different modes. 1)Rotating disk method in which sound pictures are arranged on a rotating disc (see Fig. I, B) in front of a photoelectric tube. 2)Running film method in which sound pictures are arranged on celluloid film which runs in front of a photoelectric tube (as in the “talkie” system). Refer to the following figures inserted in the Japanese text. Fig. I, A, showing sound picture originally gotten from pronounced “a” by the oscillograph method. B, arrangement of the waves on a disc in rotating disk. method. Fig. II and III, showing a sound generating apparatus of the running film method in its front (Fig. II) and in its rear (Fig. III). A, a metal house containillg a photoelectric tube. B, an Window allowing the light-beam to reach the photoelectric tube. C, a lamp house with al amp inside. D, a lens srvinging to focus at B on the running film a sharp image of a miniature slit inserted at the base of C and at the same time serving as a condencer. E1, E2, film reels. F1, F2,s film Pulleys. G2, a film convaying sprocket. P1, P2, P3, Pulleys (Fig. III). M, synchronous motor (Fig. III). S, switches (Fig. III). Fig. IV, showing the diagram of the circuit used with the photoelectric tube. For fuller description, see the Japanese text.