This study examined developmental trends of person perception by a free description method. Five content analysis measures (fatal number of statements, central statements, traits, and number of statements classified into each of Free Description Category and Person Perception Category) were used for analysing descriptions. The latter two measures were newly introduced in this paper. Third- and 5th-grade elementary school pupils were subjects. 3rd-graders used more concrete and less abstract constricts than 5th-graders. Girls showed more fluency and more interest in human relationships than boys. Higher IQ groups could use a greater number of traits than lower IQ groups.
The effects of semantic context in the lexical decision task were examined by manipulating the association and frequency factors (Exp. I) and the presentation factor (Exp. II). After the lexical decision task, the recognition test of processing order (Exp. I) and the standard recognition test (Exp. II) were performed. The contextual effect based on association occurred in both experiments, especially in low-frequency words. But there were hardly any differences between forward and backward associations. The repetition effect was larger when a pair was presented again in the same arrangement than in the reverse. The following conclusions were drawn: (a) Semantic context works markedly upon the recognition of low-frequency words, and is effective in both the forward and backward directions of association. (b) Stimulus words are automatically restored with the processing-order informations after lexical decision.
The present study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of variability of the resting arousal EEGs in normal and mentally retarded children. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years in 58 normal and from 7 to 18 in 63 retarded. The EEG was recorded monopolarly from six regions of the scalp. The data analysed by a multipurpose digital computer comprised auto-power spectra and a coefficient of variation of power at each frequency. The variability of power at peak within the theta frequency band in both groups of children showed a notably higher value as compared with other frequency bands in all regions. We discussed some of the problems of treating this variability of power as a general characteristic of theta waves or as a developmental one.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three independent factors on the free recall of categorized items performed by 5-year-old subjects. Three factors were simultaneous versus successive presentation methods, blocked versus random presentation conditions and presence or absence of category names. Both simultaneous and blocked presentations improved free recall, the latter facilitating the organization in recall. Clustering scores under the simultaneous and blocked presentation was greater than under the successive and blocked presentation. The provision of category names affected recall only under the successive presentation. The results were discussed in relation to the characteristics of the preoperational stage of cognitive development.
Children, at age of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8, were asked to classify the pictures of facial expressions showing three emotional expressions into whichever categories they liked (“free condition”), and to classify them into three categories (“restricted condition”). The results showed that most of children (3 and 5 year old) classified the pictures into non-emotional categories. Many children (6 and 8 year old) classified them into emotional categories. Classification accuracy in “free condition” was higher than that of “restricted condition”. In the second experiment, subjects were asked to classify the pictures of non-facial expression into whichever categories they liked, and then to classify the facial expression-pictures into whichever categories they liked. The results showed similar trends to the results of “free condition”.
Two experiments were run to investigate the relative effects of signal rate, stimulus rate and signal probability on visual vigilance performance. In both experiments the task was to detect unusually large deflections of a voltmeter needle which were intermingled with normal deflections during a period of 40min. The results suggested that stimulus rate was the more potent determiner of detection performance than signal rate or signal probability. However, when the signal probability was extremely high (0.45), the signal probability was a major determiner of detection performance. The results were discussed with reference to expectancy theory, arousal theory and the elicited observing rate hypothesis.
When a weak tone precedes a 110dB white noise, the acoustic eyeblink reflex to the latter stimulus is modified, depending upon the temporal parameters of the stimulus configuration. This phenomenon is called “lead-stimulation effect”. The purpose of this study was to clarify the turning point where the effect of the lead-stimulus upon the reflex changes from inhibitory to facilitatory, and to verify the hypotheses of facilitation effect proposed by Graham (1975). In Exp. I, nine undergraduates were tested with a variable ISI design. The results showed that the turning point was around 400msec or less in ISI. In Exp. II, 36 undergraduates were tested with a fixed ISI design. The results indicated that Graham's hypotheses were valid.