Children's donating behavior was examined in presence of another person of different characteristics. The children were 51/4 to 61/2 years old. Results revealed, first that children with a female teacher, i.e., a familiar female adult, made the biggest donation. Second, the prediction that children would give more with a child of the same age than with an adult was not supported. Third, less donation was made in presence of a male teacher, i.e., a familiar male adult, as compared with lone trials. Our interpretation was that the male teacher had given a coercive impression to the children in kindergarten.
Two experiments were conducted with 10 subjects for each to test the hypothesis that two systems underlie the time estimation. One is a timer-system (TS) which processes temporal information, and the other, a cognitive-processing-system (CS) which processes non-temporal information. The method of cross modality ratio matching (between time and visual distance) was used for examinating the effects of modality and memory task on TS and CS outputs. The results showed that an additional memory task during stimulus presentation affected time estimation, and interacted with some other factors such as the duration of stimulus (in Experiment I) and the number of intermittent stimuli (in Experiment II). These results suggested that two processing systems, which are differently affected by memory task, underlie the time estimation. It was not found, however, that modalities of stimulus presentation affected the two systems differently. It seems necessary to study time estimation in relation to other human functions on the basis of an interrelationship between TS and CS.
The spatial factor in Korte's third law has been regarded as the apparent (rather than retinal) separation between two light spots, by Ogasawara (1936), Oba (1957), and Attneave and Block (1973). This position was re-examined in three experiments, using five to 10 subjects. When two light spots placed in physically different depths were presented to both eyes in a dark room, they appeared as a light spot moving tridimensionally. But even when apparent motion was perceived tridimensionally, the optimal ISI in this law was not affected by the apparent separation as far as the retinal separation was constant. The optimal ISI in this situation seems to be determined by the separation between the stimulated positions in retina, not by the apparent separation. Korte's law in the dark room represents a function of the peripheral motion detective system rather than the central synthetic system.
In order to find subject types in word association and their relationship to response styles and subscales of MMPI and WAIS, two factor analyses of 32 subjects were conducted: an analysis in terms of the number of responses to each stimulus (Analysis I) and that of the coefficient of similarity between subjects for associated words to all stimuli (Analysis II). In Analysis I, five subject types were found: the active type with high arithmetical ability, the quiet type with high verbal ability, the singular type with high performance intelligence, the sensitive and rational type, and the extroverted. In Analysis II, seven subject types were found: the irresolute type with low verbal and high spatial abilities, the honest type, the type with high general intelligence, the sensitive and neurotic type, the type with low spatial ability, the quiet type with high mathematical ability, and the type with poor vocabulary. The validity of Analysis II seemed to be high because friends fell under common subject types of this analysis. In response styles, the number of responded verbs positively correlated with introversion and negatively with spatial ability, and that of nouns positively with general intelligence. These findings also suggested that the defensive attitude is related only to reaction time (Analysis I), and that the neurotic tendencies are indistinguishable from psychotic ones on the basis of reaction time because both were related to the same subject factor.
This experiment was designed to determine the effects of hippocampal lesions on place and cue learning. Hippocampectomized and control rats were each divided into place and cue learning groups. Food deprived rats were trained in a cross-shaped maze for five days by the correction method. Four different types of behavior were noted: Correct response; Error I (rats entered wrong goals and returned); Error II (rats approached the entrance areas of goals and returned); and Error III (rats returned on the alley to goals). For cue learning, there were generally no differences between hippocampals and controls. In place learning, hippocampals were inferior to controls except in Error III. Here, Error I decreased gradually whereas Error II increased as the training progressed, so the total number of errors didn't change. Hippocampals only in place learning showed inflexibility in consecutive alley choices, indicating an inability to apply an appropriate place learning strategy to this problem. These results suggest that hippocampals show some deficiency in place learning but none in cue learning and they support the spatial cognition hypothesis for the hippocampus.
Effects of recall order on the serial position effect was examined. Fifteen items were presented one by one. After each block of three items each, 3 s were given to subjects, in which subjects had to recall aloud the items of the preceding block once in the presented order. Following the recall of the last block, subjects were asked for immediate free recall. Results indicated that recall order was backward among blocks (list scanning) and forward within a block (chunk scanning). In terms of recall probability, the primacy effect was absent and effects of serial position were not significant, except for items in the fifth block. It was suggested that for a list consisted of unrelated items, output interference should be considered in regard to both chunk scanning and list scanning.
Two experiments were designed and conducted to study duration estimates made under conditions different in respect to the assumed number of informational-processing substeps. In Experiment I, 20 different two-digit numbers were presented successively at fixed intervals during a period of 20s. Subjects were required to estimate the duration by the method of reproduction after one of the three intervening tasks; (a) doing nothing (b) reading numbers aloud (c) reading numbers aloud and classifying them into even or odd numbers. In Experiment II, 14 different three-digit numbers were presented during a period of 40s. The tasks were to (a) add 100 to the numbers (b) add 110 to the numbers (c) add 111 to the numbers. Results indicated that the duration estimates decreased as a function of the number of the processing substeps.
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of filled pauses in speech should depend on the presence of the other as hearers, and that filled pauses should play not only such an intrapersonal role but also a cognitive one of pauses in general. Each of 11 adults was assigned to all three conditions varied from intrapersonal (for self) to interpersonal (for the other) communication level, and asked to describe some series of pictures from WISC picture arrangement problems. The most important finding was that incidences of filled plus silent pauses were almost equal among conditions and, at such constant level of timing in speech, both kinds of pause were distributed complementarily at each communication level.
As compared “visual stream segregation (VISS)”, found by Bregman and Achim (1973), with β movement between two stimuli, the followings were clarified: Korte's fourth law and the IST law of Kahneman for β movement with two-stimulus configuration are appliciable to VISS with four-stimulus configuration, too. As far as this goes, therefore, VISS is functionally equivalent to β movement, and in form, it is regarded as a compound phenomenon consisted of two β movements. But the value and the range of SOA, necessary for the optimal movement in VISS, are smaller and narrower than those of β movement between two stimuli. Moreover, as for configurations, the vertical stimulus pattern tends to increase the occurrence probability of VISS than the other stimulus patterns. Thus we can suggest the effect of the configurational property of stimulus on VISS. The orientation of movement, however, regulated by order of stimulus presentation, does not have any effect on the goodness of VISS.
This study attempted to examine the internal structure of Snyder's Self-Monitoring (SM) scale. Factor analysis of SM scale yielded three factors: Extraversion, Other-Directedness, and Acting. In correlational analyses with other personality measures, Extraversion correlated positively with Maudsley Personality Inventory-E (MPI-E) scale and Self-Esteem scale and negatively with Social anxiety of Self-Consciousness (SC) scale. Other-Directedness correlated positively with Public Self-Consciousness of SC scale. Acting correlated positively with MPI-E scale. Extraversion factor was founded to discribe the behavior of extraverts. Other-Directedness factor was interpreted to be a concern for the appropriateness of social behavior. Acting factor was related to tactfulness and liking for speaking to and entertaining others. These three factors showed highly positive inter-correlations, and each factor had some degree of internal consistency. These findings suggested that the factorial structure of the SM scale was not unidimensional but multidimensional.