The present study focused on temporal changes of physiological activities within trials during the concealed information test (CIT). Participants were assigned to two groups with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 50 or 25 seconds in the CIT. A relevant item was a piece of jewelry that a participant stole in the preceding mock theft task. Measures were skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), heart rate (HR), normalized pulse volume (NPV), and self-reported arousal and surprise. The results showed that physiological changes in response to irrelevant items tended to return to pre-stimulus levels within 25 seconds. Physiological recoveries were slower for SCL and HR but faster for NPV for the relevant item than for irrelevant items. Pre-stimulus physiological levels were maintained until the relevant item was presented and then declined, which was similar to the peak of tension effect. Results in the self-reported measures were in line with the physiological measures. Practical and theoretical implications were discussed.
In contemporary adolescent friendships, there is a problem of people attacking those who fail to “take a hint.” In this study, we introduced four scenarios in which one friend failed to “take a hint” based on Bateson’s concept of the communication mode. We also investigated the differences in the coping behavior that the adolescent chose, depending on their relationship with their group of friends. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 226 university students. As a result, four types of coping behaviors for people who failed to “take a hint” were found: “Ignore,” “Criticize,” “Jeer or Tease,” and “Follow Along.” Furthermore, an adolescent’s relationship with their friend group was associated with their coping behavior. Adolescents who built an avoidant friendship tended to choose “Ignore” as their coping behavior. On the other hand, adolescents who built a mob-like friendship were likely to choose “Jeer or Tease.” This discussion deals with the possibility of becoming sensitive to the people who fail to “take a hint,” if the adolescent needs the friendships in the group.
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the Big Five personality traits and tolerance toward foreign residents in Japan, and to examine the moderating effect of the population ratio of foreign residents in a residential area on these associations. We conducted a multiple regression analysis on a dataset including 18,656 Japanese residents (9,097 females; Mage = 47.80). The results of the analysis showed that tolerance was positively associated with Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Openness and negatively associated with Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. There was a significant interaction between Conscientiousness and the population ratio of foreigners on tolerance toward foreigners. A simple slope analysis showed a stronger negative association between Conscientiousness and tolerance for the high population ratio of foreigners than for the low population ratio of foreigners. We discussed the associations between the Big Five personality traits and tolerance.
In this study, the prospect that people will forget life events they have experienced is referred to as “worry of forgetting,” which is considered to be associated with some intention and emotion. In Study 1, we developed the Worry of Forgetting Questionnaire and examined its reliability and validity.An exploratory factor analysis revealed that worry of forgetting consisted of a single factor. The validity of the scale was examined by correlations with the Thinking About Life Experiences Scale, the Autobiographical Reasoning Scale, and the Identity Scale. In Study 2, we investigated the relationship between worry of forgetting and characteristics of remembered events. Participants answered a questionnaire relating to characteristics of remembered autobiographical memories and worry of forgetting, in the context of events experienced during their time in high school. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the more positive and important a participant’s recalled events, the stronger their demonstrated worry of forgetting. These and other results are discussed mainly in terms of autobiographical reasoning and, in particular, reflective thinking that connected past experiences to the self.
Issues concerning caregiving behavior in attachment theory have been overlooked, even though it is an essential factor of the theory. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies on caregiving to explore why there is a lack of research and to determine future directions. To begin, based on research pertaining to parent-child relationships and intimate adult relationships, we defined caregiving in the context of attachment theory. In addition, we outlined the idea of a behavioral system and an internal work model (IWM) that can become a basis of research, or a process of formation and development of the caregiving system and the IWM, including the problems to be investigated in future studies. Then, some problems in the research of intergenerational transmission of attachment and intimate adult relationships were suggested as the reason why the research on caregiving behavior has been delayed in attachment theory. Moreover, it was also indicated that the proximate occurrence mechanism of caregiving behavior was not clarified as a cause. We suggest a new model and some future directions.