The semantic-meaning effects of response words on judgment process were investigated. 41 5-category scales (ordinal scales) were used and the Ss judged the length of 14 horizontal lines. The following hypotheses were tested: (a) Equal interval between 2 adjacent categories, (b) the intra-scale position effect of category, (c) the intra-category semantic-meaning effect of response word, and (d) the inter-category semantic-meaning effect of response word. The results agreed fairly well with the hypotheses. The inter-category semantic-meaning effect of response word was stronger than the intra-category semantic-meaning effect.
A free recall experiment was performed under 3 selective conditions to investigate the role of the selective process, as a control in the transforming of the item information from PM to SM. In Pre condition, where the selection is possible before PM, the percentage of correct recall was higher than the other selective conditions. Even in this condition there were some Instrusion-errors in the rear selection of serial position, but there were almost none in the frontal section. The results indicate that the selective process takes place in 2 stages. First the extraction of to-be-remembered items can take place effectively before PM. Secondly the exclusion of not-to-be-remembered items takes place after PM, transforming the to-be-remembered items into SM, or stabilizing the memory.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of mediation-generative instructions upon the performance and learning modes in reversal shift with verbal materials. Prior-instructions were given to Ss as follows: (a) Instructions to generate a visual image of the stimulus pair member (Verbal), (b) presentation of the picture of the stimulus pair member (Pictorial), (c) the presentation and the instructions were given together (Pictorial-Verbal), or (d) neither Pictorial nor Verbal instructions were given (Control). In the Pictorial-Verbal, Verbal, Pictorial groups (in order), the mediational mode responses (conceptual, response-switching learning mode) were found more numerous than the associative learning mode, while in the Control group the inverse was true. In the group that efficient mediational mode responses were found more numerous, the shift problem was easy. These results were interpreted in terms of the depth of information-processing of Ss.
Concurrent validity was examined between an objective analytical method and Uchida's intuitive rating. To evaluate objectively the degree of deviation from “the Normal State Curve” defined by Uchida, the present authors used the two pairs of scores: “Model, Anti-Model or Expected Model and Expected Anti-Model Scores” which were defined by Tsujioka on the basis of his factor analytic model. The concurrent validity between the 2 methods was verified by two approaches: Inductive and deductive. The former was the multiple correlation method while the latter was a method by means of which the coordinates of individual curves plotted on a 2-dimensional orthogonal axes were categorized into several groups. The results show a relatively high degree of concurrent validity.
The present study was carried out to differentiate orienting reflexes (OR) from defensive reflexes (DR) using 20 female college students as Ss. All Ss received 5 stimulations of 1sec weak tone (1000Hz, 40dB) and 5 stimulation of 1sec strong tone (white noise, 100dB) in a randomized order and time interval. Finger pulse amplitude (PA), finger blood content (BC), heart rate (HR), and palmar skin potential reflex (SPR) were recorded simultaneously. BC decrease, HR deceleration, and negative wave of SPR occurred to weak stimulations, while increase, acceleration, and positive wave occurred to strong stimulations. Both intensities of stimulation produced a decrease in PA. These results were discussed in relation to the autonomic changes involved in OR and DR.
To assess the effects of exposure to a model-tape (M) upon verbal conditioning, college students were given a Greenspoon-type task consisting of 30 operant and 90 acquisition trials. Ss were divided into the following conditions of the acquisition trials. Group A: M's each trial was followed by one trial by Ss (90 alternations). Group B: M's 10 successive trials were followed by 10 trials by Ss (9 alternations). Group C: M's 30 successive trials were followed by 30 trials by Ss (3 alternations). Group D: M's 90 successive trials were followed by 90 trials by Ss. The critical responses increased significantly in Groups A, B, and C, but not in Group D. Differences in modeling mechanism between Groups A and B were discussed.