A model of anti-pollution behavior was set up which consisted of five independent variables: Approach to information on environmental problems, confidence in science and technology, appreciation of natural beauty, awareness of causes of pollution, and insight into the consequences of pollution. Anti-pollution behavior included purchasing behavior and coping behavior. One hundred eighty-nine adults responded to 83 five-point scales. Correlation coefficients were calculated and six-variable path analyses were carried out for purchasing behavior and coping behavior. Results indicate that the approach to information on environmental problems was a moderately strong direct determinant of anti-pollution behavior but that awareness of the causes of pollution was a weak one. Insight into the consequences of pollution had a weak indirect and/or common effect upon anti-pollution behavior.
The hypothesis examined in the present study is whether SES variables have not only direct causal effect upon political participation but also indirect causal effects mediated by political attitudes in a wide sense. This hypothesis was tested in a nation-wide survey, conducted in December, 1975 (N=2164). The results are as follows: (a) Among SES variables, education has the strongest direct and indirect causal effects upon political participation. (b) Occupation has a rather strong direct causal effect upon political participation, but has weak indirect effects. (c) Income has a weak direct causal effect upon political participation, but has strong indirect causal effects resulting to influence political attitudes, and thus leading to influence political participation.
The temporal course of shape recognition was measured after the subjects were trained to associate the shapes either with verbal labels of phonetic symbolism or to nonsense syllables, or else just to observe them. Either immediately or after delays of 15min or a week, the subjects were given a shape recognition test and both free and aided recall tests for retention of associated verbal labels. Results were: (a) The recognition in the condition of phonetic symbolism labeling was performed better by subjects than in that of nonsense syllable. (b) Though both shape recognition and label recall decreased according to the lengths of delays employed, their decrease patterns were different. These results were interpreted in terms of the conceptual coding hypothesis.
There are two models for the distribution of internal duration; one assumes the normal, and the other, the triangular distribution. The purpose of this study was to examine for which distribution the internal duration of 60msec would fit better. In the forced-choice judgment of the duration of a dot or a cross, 320 reaction times (RTs) were obtained from each of two subjects. By the application of the latency function hypothesis (Navon, 1975), RT's distribution was converted into the distribution of internal duration. The results were: (a) The triangular distribution showed better fit than the normal distribution; (b) fit was worse when the stimulus was a cross rather than a single dot, which suggests that the processing time of cross (+) pattern has an effect on the internal duration.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the generality of the encoding specificity principle. Three experiments were carried out, each consisting of two conditions, the free associates task (FA) and the non-verbal task (NV). Three experiments differed in the number of free associates and their corresponding study time. The results were as follows: (a) The superiority of recall over recognition was shown only in FA of each experiment; (b) the differences among three experiments in recall and recognition were also obtained in FA. These results cast doubt on the generality of the encoding specificity principle, and suggest rather the inter-task interference including features of recognition words.