Corporal punishment in the setting of extracurricular school sport activities (bukatsu in Japan) has attracted public attention since 2013. Previous research studies attempted to characterize the actual conditions of corporal punishment in bukatsu. Several studies have demonstrated that direct experience with corporal punishment in bukatsu led to a favorable attitude toward corporal punishment among those that received it. However, these studies did not take into consideration extraneous variables (e.g., sex, age, aggression) that may contribute to the development of favorable attitudes. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the results of previous studies using a modified research design and statistical analysis plan. Participants were 287 individuals, aged 18 to 65 years. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that direct experience with corporal punishment in bukatsu positively influenced favorable attitudes toward corporal punishment even after controlling for several extraneous variables. Moreover, the direct effect of experiencing corporal punishment in bukatsu was fully mediated by the perceived effectiveness of corporal punishment. These results extend this field of research by complementing previous research.
This study focused on casual conversation as a component of companionship at nursery schools with the aim of assessing its influence on nursery teachers’ stress reactions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among 312 nursery teachers. Factor analysis of the content of casual conversation identified the following four factors: light small talk, state and development of children, complaining about interpersonal relationships, and thoughts and beliefs about childcare. Similarly, factor analysis of the effect of casual conversation identified the following four factors: pleasure derived from sharing and empathy, smooth communication and awareness, reconfirming one’s specialty as a nursery teacher, and exhaustion from providing sympathy unwillingly. Covariance structure analysis indicated that light small talk reduced nursery teachers’ stress reactions. In addition, casual conversation about the state and development of children as well as thoughts and beliefs about childcare promoted pleasure derived from sharing and empathy, thereby reducing stress reactions. Meanwhile, complaining about interpersonal relationships at the nursery school increased stress reactions. The findings suggest that the effect of casual conversation depend on the content.
Drawing on the literature about approach-avoidance behavior, this study tested whether asymmetries in the ways people interact with their smartphones using flick input (an input method based on swiping a key in a certain direction to produce the desired letter) influence their evaluations of the emotional valence of words. Specifically, a downward flick is regarded as an approach behavior in that the movement of a finger is directed toward the self, while an upward flick is regarded as avoidance behavior in that the movement is directed away from the self. In five studies, the predicted relationship between emotional valence and direction of finger movement on the smartphone was observed for nonwords and existing words. On average, words with more downward flick letters were rated as more positive in valence than words with more upward flick letters (hereafter referred to as the Flick effect). Of note, the Flick effect was not found among people who have never owned a smartphone, suggesting that smartphone use with flick input shapes the meaning of words.
The items of the Cognition of Lying Scale were developed based on the expectancy–value theory in terms of expectancy and the value of telling lies. A factor analysis of undergraduates’ responses indicated three factors: Cognition of negative aspects of lying (7 items), Cognition of the potential for lying well (4 items), and Cognition of the genetic determination for lying well (3 items). Studies 1 and 2 confirmed that the Cognition of Lying Scale is reliable and has construct validity. The relationships between the factors and the number of lies told on the previous day were examined in Study 3, which indicated that Cognition of negative aspects of lying was negatively correlated with the number of lies told on the previous day.
The purpose of this research was to develop a Japanese version of the Unwanted Pursuit Behavior Inventory-Revised for Victimization (UPBI-R-V-J), which is a measure of unwanted pursuit behavior, and examine the reliability and validity of the UPBI-R-V-J. Unwanted pursuit behavior is defined as unwanted actions by former relationship partners, including stalking. The questionnaire survey was given to 133 university students, junior college students, and vocational college students (24 males and 109 females). The results revealed that the UPBIR-V-J consisted of instances of mild damage and severe damage, and it had adequate reliability coefficients (α = .83 and .74, respectively). Furthermore, each subscale was positively correlated with attachment anxiety associated with the former partner and was also positively correlated with the violence from former intimate partners that occurred during the romantic relationship; thus, the criterion-related validity of the UPBI-R-V-J was confirmed. Therefore, the UPBI-R-V-J was deemed to be reliable and valid. Finally limitations of the research and future directions are discussed.
We propose that avoiding the resentment of others plays an important role in the maintenance of cooperation and harmony for Japanese people. In the present research, we developed a scale to measure the tendency of individuals to avoid the resentment of others (the Avoidance of Resentment Scale: ARS) and investigated the reliability and validity of the scale through two studies. In study 1, we constructed the scale and looked into the correlations between the ARS and a scale to measure rejection anxiety. The factor analysis revealed three factors. In addition, the scores from the ARS were moderately correlated with the scores from the rejection anxiety scale, which implied that the ARS was validated. In study 2, the ARS was compared to two scales measuring harmony and trust: the Multifaceted Cooperativeness Scale and the Trust Scale. The responses for the ARS and these two scales showed significant correlations, supporting the validity of the ARS.
This study was a preliminary examination of follow-up effects and an exploration of potential predictors of treatment outcomes associated with an open trial of a transdiagnostic intervention for anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Eight children or adolescents with anxiety or depressive disorders participated in the Avoidance Behavior-focused Transdiagnostic Intervention Program (ATP). Follow-up effects at 3 and 6 months were assessed using a multi-source (clinician, youth, parent) and multi-domain (diagnoses, symptoms, general difficulties) approach. The clinician-rated clinical severity rating of principle diagnosis and number of diagnoses were lower at both follow-up time points compared to pre-intervention. In addition, separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, and chronic school refusal might predict poorer ATP treatment outcomes. Limitations and emerging issues in ATP were discussed.