This study dealt with the development of person perception of children and of early adolescents. 278 subjects consisted of eight different grades (1st-8th gredes) were instructed to write about three persons. These descriptions were analyzed by the content analysis (method) which dealt with the following four phases: (a) Calculation of the number of statements appeared in the descriptions, (b) categorization of each statement in either central or peripheral one, (c) picking out the expressed traits of persons and (d) classifying the qualifying (Q.) and organizing (Or.) terms. In (a), (b) and (c) phases, similar types of developments were found. But in (d) some different trends were found: The developments in (a), (b), (c) and (d) phases started at their ages of 7-8 years simultaneously, But the development seen in the first three phases ((a), (b) and (c)) stopped at their ages of 12-14 years, while the development in (d) continued further.
The present study was designed to clarify the retrieval process in Long-Term Memory by free emission method. Subjects were requested to recall as many female names ending with “ko” or flower names as possible. All of the recalled items were classified into two classes according to the subject's introspective reports after the recall: One consisted of within-unit items (WUI) which were recalled with some subjectively related cues and the other for extra-unit items (EUI) which were recalled without them. The mean inter-response time (MIRT) for WUI was shorter than that for EUI and nearly constant through the recall session, while MIRT for EUI increased rapidly as a function of the recall time. It was suggested that there might be some specific memory process based on subjectively related cues.
The cue utilization behavior of six-year-old children in multi-dimensional judgement tasks was studied in two experiments based on the multiple-cue probability learning (MPL) paradigm. The task required subjects to use two stimulus dimensions as cues to predict a lever distance, a criterion which was determined by an experimenter. In Exp. I, the effect of cue dominance on the task performance were examined. The results showed that the children had a tendency to use solely dominant cue for the task, and the performance was a function of the cue validity (cue-criterion correlation) of dominant cue. In Exp. II, children's ability to use simultaneously multiple cues corresponding to the cue validity was confirmed, under the optimal condition of cue properties.
To test the stimulus-aftereffect hypothesis and the informational hypothesis, human subjects received partial reinforcement in which a number of N-R transitions and the values of H2 and H3 were varied under the gambling task. The continuous reinforcement group was added for a control. After eleven acquisition trials, the PRE was demonstrated, but resistance to extinction was not an increasing function of both the number of N-R transitions and informational measures. However, resistance can be regarded as a function of N-length. The extinction data suggest that the stimulus-aftereffect interpretation is more persuasive than the discriptive theory of information, considering the mechanisms of the few-trial PRE.
The evoked skin potential reflex (SPR) to a 1-sec tone (80dB, 1000Hz) was examined on ten subjects during sleep. The magnitude of evoked SPR was larger than that of spontaneous SPR, and the per cent appearance of SPR showed a cyclic decrease and SPR was never absent in any sleep stages. Thus, contrary to previous studies, there was little inhibition of evoked SPR during sleep. Like spontaneous SPR, the evoked SPR showed the regional differences in waveform and in magnitude between the palm and the dorsal hand but there was no relation between sleep stages and SPR variables. The mechanisms underlying the evoked SPR would be too complex to be explained by a simple disinhibition model, and would involve some psychophysiological functions.
In four experiments, difficulties in receiving speech sounds and the effect of hearing loss on discrimination between them, were analyzed for a hard-of-hearing boy with Down's Syndrome (11-yr-old). Results showed that (a) when the task consisted of pairs of speech sounds containing the different vowel-combinations, for example [hana]·[tori], he could learn to discriminate between them easily through the training to match them with the corresponding picture cards, but (b) when the task consisted of pairs of speech sounds containing the same vowel-combination, such as [mma]·[bmta], he could not discriminate between them, and (c) although it was difficult for him to acquire the acoustic cues to discriminate among consonants, he could learn to discriminate between some of the difficult pairs by repeated practice.
This study developmentally approaches to the following questions in the recognition of letters: Recognizability of Katakana, Hiragana and Kanji; sex difference; and horizontal and vertical compositions of letters. Experimental materials are three kinds of cancelling tests using three types of Japanese letters; Katakana (straight-lined syllabary), Hiragana (cursive syllabary) and Kanji (idesgraph) referring to the same words composed of two letters. Results: (a) The order of better recognition achievement is Hiragana, Katakana and Kanji during the age from six to eight years, Hiragana, Kanji and Katakana at the age group of nine and ten years, and Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana in and above the age of eleven years. (b) Female subjects are superior to males in recognition. (c) The horizontal composition is easier to be recognized than the vertical.
Two groups of 20 extraverts (Es) and 20 introverts (Is), selected by the Maudsley Personality Inventory, performed a 40min visual vigilance task under two conditions of signal frequency. Under the high signal frequency condition, there was no remarkable decrement in performance over the 40min period, and the performance of Es was significantly higher than that of Is. Under the low signal frequency condition, both Es and Is showed a significant decrement in performance as a function of time, but there was no noticeable difference between the two groups. The results were discussed in reference to the notion of an inverted-U relationship between performance and arousal, but the skin conductance level taken as an index of arousal was found to vary independently of performance.