According to Biederman and Tsao (1979), ideographic script yields more interference than phonetic script in Stroop color-naming task. They attributed this effect to the fundamental differences in the perceptual demands in reading these scripts. In order to examine this hypothesis two experiments using Kanji and Kana were conducted, in which the semantic relationship between the distractor word and the color was manipulated. It was expected that if the above hypothesis was correct the script type effect would not be influenced by the semantic attributes of distractor words. In experiment 1 using verbal response (subjects were 30 undergraduates), although the script type effect was not shown in any semantic relationship conditions, the influence of the meaning of distractor words on the interference score was observed (semantic category effect). In experiment 2 using manual response (subjects were 24 undergraduates), both the semantic category effect and the script type effect were observed, and the latter was found to vary as a function of semantic relationship between the distractor words and the colors. These results are interpreted as evidence indicating that the script type effect on Stroop interference takes place at the semantic processing level.
The present paper investigated visual interaction in conversational dyads by using a larger range of gaze pattern measures associated with conversation than the total eye contact measure. Specifically, it aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the localized gaze pattern measure, which was scored for each subject by summing up gaze patterns for 3s immediately prior to and following the end of the interviewer's utterance over three occasions. Twenty female students were interviewed by one male student for about 10min. The interview topics were “fashion” for the first 5min and “sex” for the remaining 50min. (1) The frequency of a subject's gaze and eye contact was significantly greater in the “fashion” topic than in the “sex” topic, but the total amount and average length of both measures were not significantly different between the topics. (2) Immediately after the end of the interviewer's utterance subjects' gaze decreased, with significantly lesser localized gaze in the “sex” topic than in the “fashion” topic. It could thus be said that the localized gaze measure was more sensitive than the total eye contact measure.
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the differences of cerebral hemisphere function with respect to the way visual pattern information is stored in the long-term memory. The shape recognition in the left and right visual fields was measured after the subjects were trained to associate the shapes with relevant verbal labels, irrelevant verbal labels, or no verbal labels. Subjects were given a shape recognition test by the visual half-field presentation and both freeand aided-recall tests for retention of associated verbal labels. Results indicated that accuracy of recognition of shapes in the left visual field was greater than in the right visual field. Pretraining condition produced a significant main effect but no differential field effect. While irrelevant verbal labeling and observation conditions recognized the stimulus with equal reaction time in either visual field, the latency of relevant verbal labeling condition was longer in right visual field than in left visual field. These results were discussed in terms of the differences of cerebral hemisphere function in each stage of information processing.
To investigate story memory, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment I, 60 professional school students were asked to sort the sentences of stories into groups. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to generate perceived story structure. Results indicated generally a good agreement between perceived sturucture and the structure induced by story grammar. In Experiment II and III, 72 university students and 72 professional school students learned three stories and were tested in recognition task. In the course of presenting the sentences in story, pauses were inserted between story clusters (BP) or within them (WP) (Experiment II). In BP condition, recognition time (RT) was faster than in WP condition. In Experiment III questions were inserted at the same points as in Experiment II (BQ, WP). In BQ condition RT was faster than in BP condition. These results indicated that pause or question inserted at the boundary of story cluster facilitated story processing and that question was more effective than pause. Story was processed in unit corresponding to perceived story structure.
The purpose of this study is to confirm that habituated orienting response (OR) is evoked when the visual and auditory stimuli are bimodally presented. In Exp. I, either visual or auditory stimulus was exposed to 20 subjects in both habituation- and test-periods. In Exp. II, the visual and auditory stimuli were exposed conversely over the habituation- (either stimulus) and the test-periods (both stimuli). A half of the 20 subjects was instructed to pedal only when the test-stimulus was presented (Experimental Group; E-G), while the other half did not received the instruction (Control Group; C-G). Results are as follows; the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR) to the test-stimulus was significantly larger in the E-G than the C-G in the two experiments. However, a significant increase of the SCR amplitude of the E-G to the habituation-stimulus was obtained only in the Exp. II. These tendencies indicated the occurrence of “selective” OR. In addition, the above OR to the habituation-stimulus suggested that “alertive” OR was evoked here by the presentation of stimuli in different modality.
The main purpose of the present study was to excavate the adjustment problems of 93 high school exchange students in Japan. Questionnaires including Cornell Medical Index (CMI) were administered longitudinally. In addition, individual interviews were held with those who had failed to adjust to the Japanese society. As for the subjective psychosomatic symptoms manifested in CMI, there was no significant sex difference while Asians were successively found to be significantly more liable to diseases and less adjusted than non-Asians. The questionnaires other than CMI disclosed difficulties which exchange students found in adjusting at Japanese home, including delicate personal relationships with host siblings, apparent lack of affective gestures (hugs and kisses), and early curfew. In the meanwhile, language barrier and trifling rules constituted the primary difficulties they faced at host school. On account of prejudice against women, girls had more unpleasant experiences than boys. Through individual interviews, all of the early returners were found to have already had a basic problem in their home countries.
Effects of liking, interpersonal distance, and intimacy of topics on nonverbal behaviors were investigated in a setting simulating natural interaction, using a multichannel approach, which simultaneously took account of look, eye contact, body orientation, body lean, head orientation, and utterances. Twenty four male undergraduates interacted in pairs. Their interactions were video-taped. 1. Effects of liking were found on forward body lean, smile, head orientation, eye contact, and quantity of look. 2. Effects of interpersonal distance were found on forward body lean, eye contact, and body orientation. 3. In high liking, the smaller the interpersonal distance (or the greater the immediacy in terms of interpersonal distance), the greater the immediacy defined as a composite of other behaviors, and in low liking vice versa.
It has been reported that subsidiary behavior, including body movements, and irrelevant thoughts occur spontaneously during a vigilance situation. These activities are called task-irrelevant activity. To examine the effects of task attentiveness on task-irrelevant activity and on the subjective feeling of boredom, 31 subjects were asked to engage in two types of signal detection tasks. The body movements were measured by recording the rotating angle of a swivel chair that the subject sat on. More task-irrelevant thoughts and subsidiary behavior occurred accompanied by higher subjective feeling of boredom in the low attentive task than in the high attentive task. These findings indicate the possibility of the task-irrelevant activity as an index of subjective boredom.
Developmental changes in delay-choice behavior and delay-maintenance behavior were investigated in situations, in which the difference in value between immediate reward and delayed reward was set small (S situation) and large (L situation). Ninety kindergarteners aged four, five and six were assigned to either one of the two situations. (1) In S situation, the choice of immediate reward was dominant in all age groups. (2) In L situation, the choice of delayed reward was dominant in all age groups. (3) In S situation, 6-year olds maintained longer delay than 4- and 5-year olds. (4) The delay time of 4- and 5-year olds in L situation was longer than that in S situation and was not significantly different from that of 6-year olds in L situation.