The sleep patterns of 10 cerebral palsied subjects were studied in terms of the changes from night 1 to night 2 in the sleep laboratory. The following significant changes occured after night 1 for several parameters: 1) a reduction in the latency to the first stage 1-REM, 2) an increase in time spent in stage 2 and stage 1-REM, 3) a decrease in respiration frequency in stage 0 and stage 3. These findings confirmed the laboratory adaptation phenomena. The comparison of the changes in sleep parameters between arousal and sleep stages revealed a remarkable decrease in muscle tention and increase in the regularity of the respiration curve. Relaxation and abnormal tension were discussed from the psychophsiological standpoint.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of status inconsistency upon the cooperative group. In the experiment, 128 5th-grade boys and girls were used as subjects, who were divided into four-person groups (firms) and requested to make Harië (mosaic works). The president elected in the group took the most important role in the consistent group, but one did a less important role in the inconsistent. Each group was given a condition either for success or for failure. The inconsistent-failure group demonstrated more conflict than the other but no conflict was noted in the inconsistent-success. In this group, moreover, the inconsistent members tended to adhere to the group norm, while the consistent members were inclined to deviate from it.
Two experiments were carried out to analyze the inhibitory effect of the conditioned anxiety, the latter being manipulated experimentally by means of the classical aversive discriminative conditioning. The selective reaction times and the duration thresholds were measured in Exp. I and Exp. II respectively. In Exp. II, the degree of the conditioned anxiety was controlled by the intensity of the electric shock used as UCS and the number of reinforcement trials. In both experiments GSRs were recorded as a measure of the formation of conditioning. The results were as follows; (1) A clear-cut GSR discrimination was acquired within 10 reinforcements. (2) After the 10 reinforcements, the RT to CS+ was significantly lengthened in comparison with the control level. (3) On the contrary, there was no effect of the conditioned anxiety on the duration thresholds. (4) After 30 reinforcements, significantly higher thresholds were found for CS+ than for CS-, and also the increase in thresholds for CS+ was highly correlated with the degree of conditioning, i.e. the intensity of UCS.
Imagery (I), concreteness (C), meaningfulness (m) and ease of learning (E) values for 400 Japanese nouns were measured. I, C and E were rated on 7-point scales. Meaningfulness was obtained in terms of the number of free associations in 30 seconds. There were considerable positive correlations among I, C and m. But E yielded negligible correlations with the above three attributes. In Experiment II, to test the validity of Experiment I, the recall as a function of varing levels of each attribute was investigated, holding the levels of other attributes constant. As level of attributes changed, the recall changed significantly for I, C and E, but not for m. This last finding with respect to m was expected under the condition of matched level of I.
Six hundred and ninety six preschoolers were trained on two-choice discrimination problems. Stimuli were geometric figures differing in form and color. In analysis I with form relevant and color irrelevant, a square-triangle problem was learned more readily than a circle-triangle problem, and a circle-triangle more readily than a cross-star problem. In analysis II with color relevant and form the same, no significant difference was found between red and blue in each pair. In analysis III with form relevant and color irrelevant (two dimensions), square-triangle problems were learned more readily than circle-triangle problems, and circle-triangle more readily than cross-star problems. In analysis IV with color relevant and form irrelevant (two dimensions), no significant difference was found between red and blue in each pair-set.
Four vocal stimuli of Macaca fuscata and a 1000Hz tone, as a control, were presented to 11 Macaca fuscata by a modified method of overlapped Latin square, and their skin potential reflexes (SPRs) were measured. The SPR showed smaller amplitude and faster habituation to the pure tone than to the four vocal stimuli (p<.001). The median of amplitude of SPR to each stimulus was as follows: 1) To sounds generally emitted in peaceful states of emotion: 1.85mV, 2) To defensive sounds: 2.00mV, 3) To agressive sounds: 2.70mV, 4) To warning sounds: 2.50mV, and 5) To tone: 0.93mV. The SPR to the agressive sounds were greater than to the other vocal signs excepting the warning sounds (p<.05).