According to Klopfer, the occurrence of inanimate movement responses (m) in a Rorschach protocol is an index of the subject's conflict level. Specifically, the greater the number of m responses the higher the level of conflict. The present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis experimentally. Two experiments were performed. In the first Experiment, 100 university students were administered the Rorschach test. A high “m” group and a low “m” group were selected out of these 100 subjects according to the frequency of “m” response occurrence in the Rorschach protocols. The high “m” group consisted of 20 subjects whose protocols showed three to six “m” responses and the low “m” group consisted of 20 subjects whose protocols showed no “m” responses. In the two groups, the procedure of discrimination conflict was employed. The apparatus was a modified version of the equipment which was used by Worell. Each subject was asked to respond to the brighter of two simultaneously exposed lights. The high conflict condition consisted of the brightest stimuli (100 Volt and 100 Volt), while the low conflict condition used the two extreme (40 Volt and 100 Volt). Each subject was presented with 32 trials in all. The 32 trials were divided into two blocks: first 16 trials of weak conflict followed by 16 trials of strong conflict. The conflict score of each subject was calculated by the following formula. conflict score=mean reaction time (log) of the first three trials in the strong conflict condition./mean reaction time (log) of the last three trials in the weak conflict condition. The high “m” group showed a significantly higher conflict score (p<0.05) than the low “m” group. In Experiment II, the MMPI was administered to 650 university students. On the basis of the Conflict Scale of the MMPI, a high conflict group (30 Ss) and a low conflict group (30 Ss) were selected. Then, the Rorschach test was administered to each of the subjects in the two groups in order to investigate the frequency of “m” responses. The results indicated that the mean frequency of “m” responses was higher (p<0.05) in the high conflict group. From these two experiments, we may conclude that the “m” response in the Rorschach test is significantly related to (1) experimentally induced conflict and (2) verbally measured conflict. These findings were discussed from the view-point of Berlyne's information theory.
The purpose of the present experiment was to examine which of the two major theories, the reinforcement theory or the cognitive theory, could explain verbal conditioning better. If verbal conditioning conforms to the reinforcement theory, the following hypotheses can be demonstrated. (a) The level of reversal learning will be low when the level of original learning is high. (b) The level of reversal learning will be low when the trials of original learning are few. To test these hypotheses, two experiments were conducted using the procedure of reversal learning of the Taffel-type task. The personal pronouns used were “I”, “YOU”, “HE”, “SHE”, “THEY” and different verbs were combined with each of them. In the original learning (40 trials) of the first experiment, positive reinforcement was given to the pronoun of the lowest operant level (L-O), negative reinforcement to the other four pronouns. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the level of the original learning. In the original learning of the second experiment, the pronoun of the middle operant level (M-O) which was given positive reinforcement in the original learning was used instead of L-O. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the number of trials of the original learning; 20, 40, 60. In the reversal learning of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, positive reinforcement was given to the pronoun of the highest operant level (H-O). Throughout these experiments, reinforcements were provided by E's saying “Yes” or “No”. The main results were as follows. (a) The higher the level of original learning, the higher the reversal learning. (b) The reversal learning was higher as the number of trials of the original learning increased. These results might be interpreted as follows: In the groups which showed the highest level of original learning in Exp. 1 or which were given many trials of original learning in Exp. 2, overtraining might have resulted, so that reversal learning was promoted because of the overtraining reversal effect. To test this possibility, subjects were given 10, 20, or 40 trials of overtraining after reaching a criterion of 5 successive correct responses. Immediately after completing the original learning, they were given the reversal learning with a criterion of 5 successive correct responses. No relationship was found between the magnitude of overtraining and reversal learning. The present study did not support the hypotheses based on the reinforcement theory, but suggested the interpretation of the cognitive theory.
The aim of this study was to examine how three kinds of primitive motor reflexes in cerebral palsy (Babinski reflex, asymmetric tonic neck reflex, stretch reflex) were effected by various changes of subject's attention to stimulation. Mental work problems and tasks of voluntary muscle tension were adopted and the subjects underwent these tasks under two different conditions of attention to stimulation, i.e., positive attention and negative attention (condition of averted attention). As to the results of Babinski reflex and asymmetric tonic neck reflex, the subjects showed low response scores in the following order of conditions: (1) muscle tension task with positive attention, (2) mental work problems with positive attention, (3) muscle tension task with negative attention, (4) standard condition (no instruction), (5) mental work problems with negative attention. In stretch reflex, changes in the amount of tension and three types of reflexes were observed both in muscles of biceps brachii and triceps brachii. Responses under all task conditions increased in comparison with those under standard one, which discriminates from the results of Babinski reflex and asymmetric tonic neck reflex. These results showed that there were many patterns of primitive motor reflexes and the abnormal reflexes in cerebral palsy were determined not only by the pathological brain damages but also by subject's mental set.