The influence of intelligence on the concept formation will depend on the differential effect of the intrinsic reinforcement in high and low intelligence groups, as well as the effect of the extrinsic reinforcement. And the effect of intrinsic reinforcement should be stronger in the high intelligence group than in the low intelligence group, which results in the superiority of high intelligence group in the conceptual learning. Two experiments were conducted to test the following hypotheses based on the above consideration, using four years old children as subjects. 1. The effect of training will be observed when there is no extrinsic reinforcement, if the intrinsic reinforcement exists through the training trials. 2. If the effect of the intrinsic reinforcement is stronger in the high intelligence group than in the low intelligence group, training with no extrinsic reinforcement will have greater transfer effect in the high intelligence group than in the intelligence group. 3. If the intrinsic reinforcement is like the ‘function pleasure’, the effect of the intrinsic reinforcement will be determined by the degree of fitness of the problem difficulty to the intelligence level of the subject. That is, the effect of the intrinsic reinforcement in the low intelligence group will be weaker as the problem becomes difficult. In the first experiment, six groups were constructed to test Hypotheses 1 and 2 by the 3×2 factorial design in terms of (1) three conditions of training (reinforcement, nonreinforcement, and no training) and (2) two levels of MA (high and low). Ten number conservation problems consisting of various kinds of toys were given during the training, 10 trials per day for two days. Test of transfer was done by the same kind of problems, immediately after the training, 40 days after, and 180 days after. In the next experiment, eight experimental groups and two control groups were run to test Hypthesis 3. Experimental groups were the combination of three variables; two levels of difficulty of training problems (the quantity and length conservation problems, and the number conservation problems alone), the conditions with and without reinforcement, and two levels of MA. High and low intelligence control groups were not given any training problems before the test. The number conservation test problems were given immediately following the training trials, and after 40 days. The training with extrinsic reinforcement produced significantly positive transfer effect in both intelligence groups, when the test was done immediately after the training. In the test after 40 days, high intelligence group with nonreinforcement training, which was assumed to possess the intrinsic reinforcement, showed significantly higher scores than the control group, and in the test after 180 days high intelligence groups with reinforcement and with nonreinforcement performed significantly better than the control group. These results were in accord with Hypotheses 1 and 2. In the second experiment, when the test was given immediately after the training, significant difference was found between low intelligence group with nonreinforcement training and control group for the easy problem, but not for the difficult one. In the test after 40 days, however, there was no significant difference between low intelligence group and control group regardless of the level of the problem difficulty. It seems that the effect of intrinsic reinforcement in low intelligence group is so weak even for the easy problem that it disappears after 40 days. This result was not in accord with Hypothesis 3.
Problem: For the treatment of nocturnal enuresis, the method of regular awakening was applied as a conditioning procedure. After the repeated trials of regular awakening, is the nocturnal enuresis improved? What are the characteristics of remediable and irremediable cases? The effect of the treatment was evaluated by the decrease of the number of bed wetting. Procedure: After excluding the cases who showed organic defects in the light of physical examination and urinalysis, the enuretic child was prognosticated by the materials of individual records, case histories, relationship with parents, and clinical symptoms. Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes, with IQ 83 or above, ranged in age from 3 years 3 months to 11 years 5 months. The nocturnal enuresis grade (N. E. G.) was calculated for each child on the bases of the bed wetting times per week and the awakened times at night. The treatment was completed when the child did not wet the bed during 2 weeks without awakening. Results: 1) The N. E. G. decreased for the whole group consisting of both remaining and terminating cases. The cases who showed no reduction in N. E. G., called the long-term irremediable group, could not be conditioned by reinforcement. 2) Conditioning was progressing because there was a significant difference in N. E. G. between the early stage (10.8 times per week) and the later stage (7.0 times per week). 3) The long-term irremediable cases showed 3 symptoms; they were unable to acquire the nocturnal bladder control, had much difficulty in waking, and belonged to the multifarious family having conflicts among family members. Each one of these 3 symptoms by itself did not distinguish the long-term irremediable group from the remediable group. When 3 symptoms were combined, however, we can distinguish between two groups. These 3 symptorns were incompatible with the conditioning principles. 4) These 3 symptoms may represent essential symptoms of nocturnal enuresis, and they may cover all cases of nocturnal enuresis.
The purpose of the present experiment was to examine developmentally the effects of the frequency of intermittent sounds, given during the standard time of 6 sec and during the reproduced time, on the length of the reproduced time by the method of reproduction. The number of conditions of intermittent sounds were seven as shown in Table 1. To each subject these seven conditions of frequencies of sounds were presented three times each at random. Besides, the tempo of the metronome which was preferred by the subject as most comfortable was measured individually, and the relation of the tempo with the reproduced time was examined. The subjects were as shown in Table 2. Results were as follows. 1. Generally, when the sounds were given during the standard time, as the frequency of sounds increased, in other words, as the sound interval decreased, the reproduced time became longer, and when the sounds were given during the reproduced time, as the frequency of sounds increased, the reproduced time became shorter (see Table 4). These findings support the law by Fraisse: “Tout ce qui contribue à augmenter ou à diminuer le nombre des changements remarquès a pour effet d'allonger ou de raccourcir la durée apparente”. The younger were the subjects, the stronger was the effect of sounds. However, the effect was not statistically significant for adults (see Fig. 1). The effect of sounds during the standard time was weaker than that during the reproduced time (see Fig. 1). This result shows that the sounds during the reproduced time have more direct effect on the time estimation. One reason for it may be that the estimation is done during the reproduced time, not during the standard time. 2. The effect of no sounds during either time did not fall between the effect of the sounds during the standard time and the effect of the sounds during the reproduced time (see Fig. 1). And the developmental trend of the length of the reproduced time under the condition of no sounds during either time was similar to that under the condition of low frequency sounds during the standard time and that under the condition of high frequency sounds during the reproduced time (see Fig. 2). These findings support the hyposesis that the time estimation is based on the personal tempo, and during the reproduction the frequency of perceived change (changements remarqués) based on the personal tempo is higher than during the standard time for young children because of their impatience. It seems that in young children the tempo of the intermittent sounds absorbs the personal tempo and both tempos are likely to become one, so the effect of the intermittent sounds is stronger for them (see Fig. 3). 3. In general, the reproduced time of young children who preferred fast metronome tempos was longer (see Table 6), and they showed clearer tendency to est imate the time with sounds of high fre quency as shorter than the time with sounds of low frquency (see Table 7). It appears that the young children who have fast metronome tempos aree more susceptible to the influence of sounds.