Self-esteem of sexual orientation minority members is not necessarily low, contrary to what might be theoretically expected. An explanation has been offered that self-protective strategies were in use. Instead, it is argued in this paper that sense of social inclusion plays an important role, and two questionnaire studies examined the possibility. In Study 1, 214 members of sexual orientation minority completed a set of questionnaires. Results showed that sense of acceptance by others had a positive relationship with self-esteem, but use of self-protective strategies did not. In Study 2, 218 who were not minority members completed the same set of questionnaires. It was shown in the comparison that the relationship between self-esteem and sense of social inclusion was stronger for minority members than non-members. Sense of social inclusion thus appeared to help members of sexual orientation minority keep self-esteem high.
Self-oriented perfectionism has two aspects: pursuing perfection simply as a goal (Personal Standard: PS) and not accepting imperfection (Concern for Mistake: CM, Doubting of Action: D). The former is said to enhance mental health, while the latter deteriorates it. The latter aspect may also have vulnerability to uncontrollable events. The present study used causal modeling to investigate the relation of these two aspects, self-evaluative depression (composed of Self-Esteem and Depression: SED), and styles of coping with uncontrollable events. A questionnaire measuring these concepts was completed by 169 college students, and the following results were yielded: Of the two aspects of self-oriented perfectionism, PS lowered SED, while CM and D heightened SED. PS increased such coping styles that attempt to control uncontrollable events as “Face and Act”, “Positive expectation” and “Rumination”, whereas CM increased “Avoidance”, “Negative expectation” and “Self-blame” copings, which represent vulnerability to uncontrollable events. Moreover, Self-blame coping increased SED. These results suggested that CM was related, via Self-blame, to negative evaluation of imperfect self.
We examined the attentional constraints of the contextual cueing effect known to occur only for attended items. We focused on whether the items not only attended to but also inhibited afterwards yield the effect or not. We adopted a hybrid paradigm of visual marking and contextual cueing procedures. In the experiment, half the distractors preceded the others and a target for one second. The results showed the contextual cueing effect even with visually marked items. These results suggest that spatial configurations previously attended to and inhibited afterwards can be encoded as visual context.
The purpose of this article is to calculate the probability that a null hypothesis is rejected using data of preliminary experiment, and to determine an appropriate sample size based on that probability. The procedure to calculate that probability is as follows: (a) generate parameters from the posterior distribution of parameters given data of preliminary experiment; (b) generate test statistics from the conditional distribution given those parameters; (c) count how many of the generated test statistics exceed a critical value. Once the probability of rejecting null hypothesis is estimated, researchers can decide sample size corresponding to the desirable probability. Examples of the procedure are provided and compared with the traditional methods in the case of Student's t-test.
The present study addressed the relationship between an individual difference in the reading span test (RST) and the performance in text comprehension with respect to storage and retrieval systems. In Experiment 1, an effect of the serial recall task on performance in text comprehension was compared between high and low RST score groups. In Experiment 2, an effect of the word fluency task on performance in text comprehension of two groups was investigated. The results of both experiments showed that the performance in text comprehension of the low RST score group was impaired when the serial recall task was the secondary task; in contrast, the performance of the high RST score group was influenced when the word fluency task was used. The results suggested that the high RST score group comprehended text not only by using a temporary storage system but also by using a retrieval system efficiently.
The effects of spatial attention by precuing the location of the target stimulus are attributed to two mechanisms: noise reduction and stimulus signal enhancement. The signal enhancement hypothesis proposes that attention directly improves the quality of the stimulus representation. In this study, we examined the temporal characteristics of signal enhancement by combining an orientation discrimination sensitivity measurement and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-off procedure. To minimize the spatial uncertainty, target position was indicated in advance. We found that the valid precue improved the orientation discrimination sensitivity by speeding up the rate of information processing, while not affecting the asymptotic level of sensitivity. We conclude that the signal enhancement by the attention is observed only at the early stage of information processing, and it has different temporal characteristics from that of noise reduction.
The purpose of this research was to examine disputant's cognitive processes in a civil suit empirically. We analyzed the data which was gathered by The Judicial Reform Council. We assumed that a disputant who wishes to reduce costs for suit often chooses settlement procedure in the judicial process and who thinks highly of the judge is more likely to accept judge's proposition. Although we could not confirm the effect of cost anxiety, the results suggested that a good impression forward the judge promotes reaching settlement. It was also suggested that corporations are apt to compound more than natural persons. In addition, analysis of effect of settlement indicated that reaching settlement promotes acceptance, agreement and satisfaction about unfavorable outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence friends had on academic competence of children. Junior high school students, 322 in total, participated in the study. Results essentially replicated previous studies on the relationship between academic achievement and perceived academic competence, and it was positive. The present study also found that when the friendship was close and reciprocal, the achievement-competence relationship was strong if the friend's achievement was low, and weak if it was high. In contrast, children's perception of academic competence was not influenced if the comparison of academic achievement was made with a friend who was not very close.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a standardized questionnaire to measure proactive and reactive aggression in children. In Study 1, the questionnaire was administered to fourth- through sixth-grade children (n=700) to investigate its factor structure and internal consistency. Moreover, in order to examine reproducibility, it was administered twice, at the interval of about three weeks, to 132 of these children. Statistical analyses of the data have yielded three factors: proactive-relational aggression, reactive-expressive aggression, and reactive-inexpressive aggression; and have confirmed that the questionnaire was reliable and internally consistent. In Study 2, 14 homeroom teachers of fourth- through sixth-grade nominated children who were most characteristic (n=106) and least characteristic (n=99) in each of the three factors. In addition, fifth- and sixth-grade children (n=86) assessed their same-sex classmates according to the sentences that characterized each of the three factors. These children selected were also participants in Study 1. The results showed that the scale scores were consistent with the nominations and assessments, indicating the high construct validity of the questionnaire.
This study investigated effects of test format on use of different learning strategies and their perceived utility. It was conducted in a classroom setting. Sixty seven (67) eighth grade students participated in the study, and were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: fill-in test or essay test conditions. They took a history class for five days, and at the end of each session, took a test about the lecture with the format of their conditions. Results showed that in comparison with fill-in format, essay format facilitated use of deep-processing learning strategy, and decreased use of such strategies as rote memory. No significant effect was found for perceived utility of learning strategies, suggesting that it did not mediate the format effect. Underlying mechanism of the format effect and practical value of the current research were discussed.
This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.