The purpose of this study is to examine whether the preattentive process contiributes to generating saccades to the peripheral target in an unstructured background. The target and the non-target stimuli were presented simultaneously on the opposite sides at 10 deg. of eccentricity. Subjects were instructed to fixate on the target with the first saccade after the presentation of the test stimuli. The first saccade latency was measured with the EOG-technique. The target and the non-target patterns were different in textons and/or forms i.e., 1) in textons (the t-condition), 2) in forms (the f-condition), and 3) in textons and in forms (the tf-condition). While the textons are processed in th preattentive mode, the form is processed in the focal attentive mode. The mean saccade latencies in the t and the tf conditions did not differ significantly. The both were significantly shorter than those in the f condition. The number of the first error-saccades to the non-target was significantly larger in the f than the t and tf conditions. The study demonstrated that the preattentive process contributes to generating saccades to the peripheral target in an unstructured background.
The purpose is to elucidate the sequential change in relations between students' friend choice and their school performance in terms of self-evaluation maintenance model. One hundred and thirty-five elementary school children and one hundred and twenty junior high school students were used as subjects of this survey. On the two questionnaires, each student was asked how he rated his own school performance, that of his friend, and that of his distant classmate, on both the high and low relevant subjects. According to the result of the survey, most students changed the combinations of each factor (relevance, closeness, school performance) in order to maintain their desirable self-evaluation. A time sequential analysis showed that students' self-evaluation maintenance processes were not so much based on their own ratings of school performance as on actual grades. It also showed that self-evaluation maintenance and personality traits were related to each other: As for elementary school children, their personality traits were related to the ratings of their own school performance and of their friends' school performance.
Ninety-five Japanese students made judgments of line lengths under different levels of conformity pressure in the Asch/Crutchfield paradigm. Comformity pressure level (whether the preceding four or two ‘others’ unanimously picked a wrong choice) and public self-consciousness interacted; under high pressure, the higher the public self-consciousness, the more conforming responses. Independently, under high pressure, higher self-esteem led to fewer conforming responses. Under low pressure, neither public self-consciousness nor self-esteem had a significant effect. None of the following affected conformity: gender, private self-consciousness, or social self-esteem. In addition, anti-conformity (picking a wrong choice in the control trials where the ‘others’ chose the correct one) was observed, replicating the findings first reported by Frager (1970). A gender by social self-esteem by block (first vs. second half of experimental task) interaction, a gender by self-esteem by block interaction, and a gender by public self-consciousness interaction separately affected the number of anti-conformity responses. Implications for self-consciousness theories are discussed.
In this study using a highly structured set of stimuli, each stimulus had five attributes and each attribute could take one of two values. Two stimuli were selected from the set for the control condition and three for the experimental condition. Two learned stimuli in the control condition were those which could be transformed between one another by four relevant transformations. Among the not-learned stimuli a few stimuli were related to the learned stimuli by relevant transformations and were called generative stimuli, while the leftover stimuli were called ungenerative stimuli. In the experiment, the subjects memorized two or three learned stimuli and immediately recalled them. After several minutes of an inserted task, they made “old” or “new” judgments of the test stimuli and then rated their own confidence of judgment. The experimental results showed that; (a) the recognition confidence was highest for the learned stimuli, the second highest for the generative stimuli, and lowest for the ungenerative stimuli, and (b) the learning of the third stimulus increases the confidence of the generative stimuli. The main conclusion is that the recognition confidence for the test stimuli systematically change, as stimuli in a highly structured set of stimuli are learned one after the other.
Problems consisted of two categories of questions, of general knowledge and forecasting future events. Given each question, the subjects chose a more likely answer from the given two alternatives, rated their own confidence on the correctness of the choice, and then, assessed the hit-rate of the classmates. The major result is as follows. The difference between average confidence and average hit-rate was small, namely, calibration was good, for problems of both general knowledge and familiar future events. On the other hand, calibration was poor for problems of accidental future events. In other words, the more available knowledge, the better calibration is. In discussion we proposed “a model of retrieval and generation”, which could explain our results for the problems of general knowledge. Results for problems of future events suggest that the subjects possibly used a certain model to make their probability judgments. On the basis of our results and with our discussion, we found the phenomenon that people believe themselves to make mental judgments better than the average. We call the phenomenon “self-superiority phenomenon”.
The present study was carried out to examine the effect of movement and coloring of concomitant pictures on children's story learning. The story was Hans Christan Andersen's HINAGIKU (daisy), which was 47 sentences long. In relation to the story, the subjects in experimental groups were presented the static or moving pictures by means of pictur-card show or animation video. Those pictures were colored or uncolored. Immediately after the story learning, the subjects were given verbative recall and inferential tests. The 156 second graders were assigned to one of four experimental groups and a control group (without pictures). The main findings were as follows; (1) The coloring of picture had facilitative effects on the verbative recall of story. This result indicates that clear visual imagery improved the memory of story. (2) The moveing of picture facilitated the inferential test performance. This result indicates that the movement of picture clarified the story context and gave a lot of cue information to comprehend story.
The present study investigated the relation between the perceptual task of facial expression, sex difference and cognitive mode. Subjects were 55 male and 26 female Japanese students. Material slides were made from Ekman and Friesen (1975), which represent six type of basic facial emotion. Cognitive mode was measured by CMQ-R (Cognitive Mode Questionnaire-Revised) standardized by Ida and Sakano (1988). (1) In facial recognition task (judging the emotional content each stimulus face represents), female advantage, especially in negative emotion such as fear, disgust and sadness, was shown as previous studies. Cognitive mode was not related to this task. (2) In intensity rating task for facial expressions, two type of emotional faces expressing surprise and sadness were rated less intensive than the other four types. However, as for these two types, the male-high scoring group in “imagery and imagination” scale rated more intensive than the male-low scoring group. The result suggests that cognitive mode had relation to this intensity rating task.
Cognitive Failures Questionnaire devised by Broadbent, Cooper, Fitzgerald, and Parkes (1982) is a questionnaire which measures frequencies of failure behaviors in daily life. In this study, the relation between CFQ score and performance on visual attentional task was examined. Subjects were 20 female college students. In one task there was no information about target location, in other tasks signal stimulus was presented previously at the same location as target. The result indicates that, regardless of task condition, high CFQ score subjects tended to search the target, low score subjects focused their attention on the location where the target would be presented. These results agree with the notion of Broadbent, Broadbent, and Jones (1986).
This study attempted to construct a scale measuring encounter group (EG) members' individual processes. The items were collected from the descriptions of 110 EG participants and selected and categorized according to the hypothetical importance in the EG members' individual process. The questionnaire was then administered to 112 participants of eleven EGs, everyday during the four-day EGs. Factor analysis was carried out, yielding seven factors for individual process (i.e. self-expression, self-understanding, desire regading encountering others, bewilderment in the face of freedom, understanding of others, self-restraint, and feeling the possibility of creating group process). Changes of the factors through the four-day sessions in EG were examined by comparing the factor scores at four days. The results were as follows: the scores of self-expression, self-understanding, desire regarding encountering others, understanding of others, and feeling the possibility of creating group process significantly increased at middle and late sessions. The scores of bewilderment in the face of freedom and self-restraint significantly decreased at middle and late sessions. EG members were considered to experience individual process specific to encounter group.
The purpose is to examine the effects of number-counting and attention paid to body parts as anxiety inhibiting responses in reciprocal inhibition. Subjects were thirty-three men and women, all complaining of anxiety. They were classified randomly, in the presence of anxiety-arousing stimuli, into three groups-(1) the number-counting groups, (2) the group paying attention to body parts, and (3) the control group-each group consisting of 11 people. After a week's training, the number-counting group showed a significant reducation in their subjective anxiety compared to the other two groups, making it clear that number-counting is effective in inhibiting anxiety. The groups paying attention to body parts showed no significant difference compared to the control group, however the former tended to reduce subjective anxiety. This suggests that the attention paid to body parts may be effective in inhibiting anxiety. In general, the present study suggests that the shift of attention serves as a factor in inhibiting anxiety.