Two experiments were run in order to ascertain the learning set (LS) phenomenon in rats. The task was a series of two-choice pattern discrimination problems in Y-maze and 100 trials were given per problem. In both Experiments I and II, the rats' correct responses gradually increased over ten independent pattern discrimination tasks, thus showing interproblem transfer effect or the LS phenomenon. In Experiment II, there was evidence of extradimensional transfer effect; rats exposed to a series of pattern discrimination problems showed better performance in a subsequent black-white discrimination task. Theoretical discussions of the results were attempted with reference to Harlow's and Reese's theories on LS.
The mother-infant interaction was studied in the mouse by changing the size of litters. Litter size was reduced to either two or eight on the day following parturition, and the behavior of the mothers was observed by the time-sampling technique during the entire lactation period. There was no significant difference in their maternal behavior, (nursing, licking pups, and nest bulding). The mothers of the small litters were less active and spent more time resting than the mothers of the large litters. The offspring were re-grouped at weaning (21 days of age) into groups of two or eight of the same sex, and tested in an open field at nine weeks of age. The pre-weaning litter size and the post-weaning group size affected different aspects of the open-fieldbehavior.
A total of children aged four, five and seven were required to make a choice between two rewards which differed in the following four conditions; (a) choice between an immediate-small and a delayed-large rewards, (b) choice between an immediate-large (small) and a delayed-large (small) rewards, (c) choice between an immediate (delayed)-large and an immediate (delayed)-small rewards, and (d) choice between an immediate-large and a delayed-small rewards. The results indicated that the older children chose significantly more delayed-large rewards in the immediate-small vs. delayed-large choice condition, than the younger children and that the children of all age groups used both the amount and the interval differences between the two rewards as helpful cues for their choices.
The direction of feedback in the selection strategy situation has traditionally been out of control. In the present paper, the probability that the selected instance is positive was redefined so as to control the direction of feedback, based on Johnson's non-predetermined solution technique, in terms of the average rate of hits denoted by τ. To evaluate the effectiveness of τ, the effects of three conditions (τ=0, 1/2, 1) upon the strategy-learning process were experimentally examined. The results showed that the selection distributions varied, as the problems proceeded, toward the optimal strategies defined under each value of τ.
A hypothesis was tested that the rate of learning in the rats exposed to inescapable tail shocks is reduced because of learned helplessness. Groups of eight rats were given 64, 48, 32, 16, or 0 inescapable preshocks, and then trained on an escape-avoidance task in a shuttle box for 5 fixed ratio (FR)-1 trials followed by 25 FR-2 trials. The latency for the shuttle response in the FR-2 trials was an increasing function of the number of inescapable preshocks. The findings support the hypothesis based on learned helplessness.
A hypothesis was proposed that the presence of appropriate furigana (phonetic signs) would shorten the search time required for reading a kanji in on (Chinese style) or kun (Japanese style). In a factorial design, a series of kanji were presented without furigana, or with on- or kun-furigana, and subjects (Japanese) were instructed to read each kanji in either on or kun. Both the latency of reading and the probability of correct recall were influenced by the furigana, the instruction on reading style, and the customary reading style of each kanji. The results supported the hypothesis, and further reinforced a theory that Japanese subjects attach a meaning to a Chinese character by reading it in Japanese style at the first sight of the character.
The purpose is to find the structure of visual impressions of human face-likeness. The stimuli were 15 outline figures of human faces. Lingoes' Multiple Scalogram Analysis and its modified type were applied to the 0-1 data of face-likeness obtained from 147 student subjects. Results were; (a) a monotonic relationship was seen between the goodness of the impression of face-likeness and the number of components in the human outline face figures, (b) the eye was the most important component for the impression of face-likeness, (c) two series of face-likeness were obtained by Lingoes' MSA, and similar ones were obtained by the modified MSA, (d) one of the two series was correlated with the number of components, while the other with the content of the figures.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the sensory and emotional meaning of sexual words, through the use of reduplication words. The reduplication were made by the pairing and combining of 110 Japanese monosyllables (e.g. momi-momi). Five hundred and sixty-nine reduplications were chosen from 12, 100, through the preliminay experiment, and fifty subjects were asked to evaluate these reduplications, by assigning them to different categories, (seven sensory, and six affective). The results showed that tactual, visual, and proprioceptive sensations were associated with and sexual words.