Effects of heat tolerance (HT) relating with individual emotionality, and of thermal biofeedback on itching were examined. Fourteen high HT subjects and 12 low HT subjects were selected by the Cold and Heat Tolerance Scales (Dienstbier, LaGuardia, & Wilcox, 1987). The experiment was divided into three phases: rating of itch, eight thermal biofeedback (increase or decrease) training sessions, and rating of itch with biofeedback. Itching was produced by a glue made from Japanese yam powder. Yam glue was applied on the subjects' dorsal forearm. The biofeedback information was given by the thermographics on the CRT, where its color was changed according to the changes in temperature of the dorsal forearm skin. Results showed that (a) subjects who were instructed to decrease their skin temperature reported comparatively lower intensities of itching, although their actual temperature controls were unsuccessful, and (b) the biofeedback performance reduced the intensity of itching for the low HT subjects, but raised it for the high HT subjects who were instructed to increase their skin temperature. The results suggested that the biofeedback performance could have different central effects on itching among the HT groups.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivation on preschool children's sharing judgment and behavior. In Experiment 1, 45 4-year-olds and 41 5-year-olds were asked whether they wanted to share seals in a fictional situation, and were observed whether they shared their seals in an actual situation. The main results indicated that the number of children who shared seals in the latter situation was smaller than those who judged to share seals in the former one. Especially there was a great difference regarding this point in 4-year-olds children. “Empathic orientation” motivated preschool children's sharing behavior, while “self-focused orientation” did not. In Experiment 2, 52 4-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds were divided into two empathic levels (middle, high) and two motivational cost levels (low, high) to examine the effects of “empathic orientation” and “self-focused orientation.” The main results indicated that high motivational cost restrained children from sharing in an actual situation.
A self-report instrument to measure multiple mood states was constructed. Six hundered and fortyeight Japanese affect adjectives were collected and divided into two lists. Japanese undergraduates totaling 1 254 rated each adjective in the list on a 4-point intensity scale to assess their momentary mood states. Factor analyses revealed 131 items with high loading on extracted major factors. The new list of these 131 items was rated three times by undergraduates totaling 1 768 and was factor analysed. Throughout the factor analyses, eight factors emerged with consistent reliability. Finally, 80 items highly loaded on these factors were selected to construct eight 10-item mood scales. These scales were called Depression (Anxiety), Hostility, Boredom, Liveliness, Well Being, Friendliness, Concentration and Startle. The scales were shown to be internally consistent. A comparison of these scales with the English mood scales was presented.
The purpose was to explore conditions encouraging to form grand coalition, which leads a group to high solidarity with strong consciousness of intragroup competition. Subjects, 64 male undergraduates, were divided into 16 groups of four persons each. Experiment was carried out with 2×2 design of (consciousness of intergroup competition: strong vs. weak) (consciouness of intragroup competition: strong vs. weak). Results showed that strong competitive spirits against other groups produced facilitative effects on formation of grand coalition even when the consciousness of intragroup competition was strong, and the facilitative effects were strong even when consciousness of intragroup competition was weak. In addition, the necessary conditions for group members to form grand coalition under strong intragroup competition were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine preschool children's prosocial judgments and their reasoning for prosocial episodes. One hundred children were individually asked to do prosocial judgments and their reasoning for three prosocial episodes: helping, sharing, and comforting. In the episode there was a crying or a normal facial expression of a person in distress under the condition of high and low empathic situations. The results indicated that the crying face and high empathic situation increased the rate of prosocial judgment more than the normal face and low empathic situation, respectively, and older children (5-year-olds) did prosocial judgment than younger ones (4-year-olds). Furthermore, the crying face induced the empathic reasoning, especially in the high empathic situation. These results supported that preschool children were able to use the empathic reasoning reflected in the negative facial expression and the cause of distress of the victim.
An experiment was conducted to examine the mediating role of physiological arousal in social facilitation. It was hypothesized that the elevation of arousal level by the presence of other persons or evaluative apprehension would facilitate task performance. Twenty-four male and 24 female college students performed simple task alone, with a cooperative person, or with a competitive person. One half of the subjects was given an instruction which would produce evaluative apprehension. Subjects' skin potential responses were measured as the indices of physiological arousal. Although the hypothesis was supported by the analysis of psycho-physiological index, but it was not at all by the self-reported index of arousal.
Two experiments were conducted to specify an CS property of intraperitoneally injected odor substance in conditioned odor aversion formation. In experiment 1, three groups of water-restricted rats received one trial of conditioning with intraperitoneal injections of orange-extract (CS) and LiCl (UCS). The CS-UCS intervals of experimental groups were 30 minutes (Group IE-30) and 120 minutes (Group IE-120). In the test trial, Group IE-30 rats showed aversion to the test solution (0.5% orange extract), whereas no significant difference was observed between the control group and Group IE-120. In experiment 2, three groups of rats received one or two or three conditioning trials (Groups E1, E2 and E3, respectively). The CS-UCS interval of all groups was 30 minutes. In the test trial, rats in Groups E2 and E3 consumed less amount of test solution (0.5% orange extract) than the control rats, whereas no significant difference was observed between Group E1 and the control group. These results suggest that the intraperitoneally injected odor substance have CS property on conditioned odor aversion.
Posture is a nonverbal behavior and a universal means of animal and human communication. It is observed not only in interpersonal communication but in clinical situation. Our recent research shows that posture affects the mood and emotional awareness of the subjects. This study compared the subjects' awareness between two groups, the operational group (actual posture) and the image group, which only imagined a postural change. Six kinds of posture were adopted. These postures included two dimensions; inclination of trunk (straight or bent), and head (up, front or down). In these conditions the subjects estimated their mood and emotional awareness with 17 pairs of adjectives on a 3 point scale. The results of ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in conditions of both inclination of trunk and head. Especially, when the subject bent his back while hanging his head, this made most feeble, lifeless, and shadowy mood than any other postures. The authors confirmed that posture exerted a strong influence on one's emotional awareness.
This paper read as the special lecture at the Annual Convention of The Japanese Psychological Association, held at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 1990, and reported on the recent trends of psychology in the Republic of Korea. This report dealt essentially with four topics; 1) the history of Korean psychology which was divided into four periods of creation, reconstruction, development, and current status, after the liberation at the end of the World War II in 1945, 2) the distribution and academic status of 26 universities, with formal department of psychology, 3) general situation of job opportunities for the graduates in psychology of these universities, 4) the composition of Korean Psychological Association (KPA), consisting of nine divisions (social, industrial and organizational, clinical, consultations and psychotherapy, experimental and cognitive, developmental, biological and physiological psychology) with the total of about 400 members, Last, some directions of Korean psychology to the future was suggested.