In this paper, it was intended to clarify an individual's association structure, not to make a statistical analysis of group traits of word association structure. A model was composed in which word associations were regarded as a linear transformation. To determine a linear transformation, stimulus words and response words were quantified by 7-point semantic differential (SD) scales. The SD estimates of response by the linear transformation model were compared with the actual SD response scores of the subject. Data from nine male university students were used for this comparison. The results show that the emotional evaluation dimension of SD scales plays an important role in determining the linear transformation. It may be possible to clarify the factors affecting the word association responses by applying the linear transformation model to describe the individual word association structure.
The experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various types of strategies on spatial representations. In Exp. 1, 41 college students were divided into three group by the exploratory strategies under three instructions; (1) to remember many landmarks as possible (LG), (2) to judge the relationships between the subjects' position and the starting point (RG), (3) to describe their movement course (CG). After subjects explored the building, they were given two tasks, the route reproduction task in which subjects were asked to describe the serial route, and the construction task in which subjects were asked to construct the configuration of the buildings by the cubes. Results showed that LG produced higher performance scores in the route reproduction task than RG and CG did, and RG produced higher performance scores than the other two in the construction task. In Exp. 2, after subjects explored the building, they were divided into two groups by being assigned different tasks to perform. One group was asked to perform the serial route task, while the other group was asked to perform the configuration task. Then each group had the second exploration periods, and solved two tasks. Results showed that the number of landmarks in the serial route task group more increased than the other group did. These results suggest that the exploration strategies influenced the kind of spatial representations.
Two experiments were performed to examine Hulse's cognitive rule-encoding theory and Capaldi's associative memory/discrimination learning theory of serial learning in rats as applied to both acquisition and extinction processes. In Experiment 1, three groups of rats were trained in a runway on a strongly monotonic decreasing series 14-7-3-1-0 food pellets (Group SM) or on a weakly monotonic 14-5-5-1-0 series (Group WM), or on a nonmonotonic 14-1-3-7-0 series (Group NM). Following acquisition, extinction trials were administered. In acquisition, Group SM showed more accurate anticipation of the 0-pellet trial than Group WM, and Group NM did not show any such anticipation. In extinction, Group SM and WM had a tendency to show less resistance to extinction than Group NM. In Experiment 2, two groups of rats were trained on 14-0-7-0-3-0-1-0 series (Group M) or 14-0-1-0-3-0-7-0 series (Group NM), and then they were given extinction trials. In aquisition, Group M showed slow running on the last three trials of the series but Group NM did not show such responding. In extinction, Group M showed less resistance to extinction than Group NM. The results of both experiments are shown to be consistent with the rule-encoding theory rather than the memory/discrimination learning theory.
The processes of socialization and personalization were reexamined from the viewpoint of adjustment, and two concepts: social orientedness and individual orientedness, were proposed to capture the two processes. The main purpose of the current study was to construct a scale to measure social and individual orientedness, and examine its reliability and validity. Firstly, seventeen items were selected for the scale through item analysis, then its reliability was estimated with 310 male and 402 female students, using the split-half and test-retest methods. Factor analysis of the items yielded two factors. Secondly, validity of the scale was examined; those same subjects filled Self-consciousness scale and egogram test (TEG), Sociometrix-test, data on personal troubles, and teacher's judgement score on personal troubles were obtained. The results showed that the concepts were effective in measuring both personal trait and developmental level, and that social orientedness concerned the orientation to others and the external (interpersonal) adjustment, while individual orientedness was for the self and the internal.
The effects of personality characteristics on psychological/physical well-being of ninety-one Japanese working women were investigated with second-order factors of the 16PF questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant, negative contributions of extroversion and independence to depression. However, adding hassles as perceived stressors to the regression equation markedly decreased the amount of depression variance explained by these personality variables. None of the personality factors predicted physical symptoms, and only hassles significantly contributed to their prediction, indicating strong associations between hassles and physical symptoms. Conceptual overlap and confounding effects between hassles and symptom measures are discussed in the light of these results.
An experiment was conducted to analyze the space-movement processes which unilateral spatial neglect (USN) patients manifested. Three kinds of movement features were tested which were reported in previous studies; (a) general coarse response tendency, (b) hypokinesia in the disordered spaceside, and (c) more frequent response toward the normal space-side. Five left USN patients with right brain damage were compared with five non-USN right brain damaged patients, and five normal controls. As an experimental movement task, a non-visual movement reproduction with regard to kinesthetic sensory modality was adopted. Subjects were blindfolded and asked to reproduce the criterion-movement (length of 10cm) toward right hand side in space. Three different experimental spaces were used in relation to the subject's body positions; ‘left space (range from left shoulder to median line)’, ‘right space (from median line to right shoulder)’, and ‘right-outside space (outside of right shoulder)’. The criterion-movement was presented to the subjects, and then they reproduced the movement in either one of these three spaces. Generally, the left USN patients reproduced movements with more errors and less accuracy when the execution side was in the ‘left space’. The results confirmed the observation that left USN patients showed more frequent response toward the right hand side direction in the ‘left space’. The left USN patients with lesions in frontal and/or basal ganglia regions showed larger errors in this task compared to the left USN patient whose lesion is localized in the parietal region in the right hemisphere.
The purpose was to construct a Test Influence Inventory (TII), which consists of two parts, the one is anxiety scale and the other is test fatigue scale. Subjects were 148 (76 males and 72 females) elementary school children. Factor analysis of TII, comprised from 25 items, yielded 5 factors, namely, (1) Emotionality factor (Em), (2) Body factor (Bo), (3) Nervous factor (Ne), (4) Worry factor (Wo), (5) Perspiring factor (Pe). The test-retest reliability coefficient of TII was 0.87, and the validity coefficient by correlation with TAI (Test Anxiety Inventory: Sarason, 1975) score was 0.83. The results revealed following three points. (1) Females were higher than males on test anxiety. (2) Children who didn't go to juku school, scored higher on both test anxiety scale and test fatigue scale. (3) Children who have experienced many tests were higher on test anxiety and test fatigue.
Everyday discourse patterns of adolescents were examined to clarify differences in their implicit expectations for various other people. Subjects were asked to complete 50 questionnaires on self-disclosing behaviors (Study 1) and which person in whom they would talk (Study 2) in everyday life. In both studies importance about each question is also scored by seven point scale. Total prefered percentage was calculated about each selected person. The results were as follows: same-sex friends were most frequently chosen as the person, to talk to while parents were selected for more important matters. Males comparatively tended to choose their father, while females their mother, to talk important matters with. Males had a tendency to talk about only important matters, while females tended to ignore importance. Males had a tendency to talk with girl friends about things they told no one else, while females tended to share with same-sex friends the same information as with boy friends. Gender differences in implicit role expectations for various others were discussed.
Differences between Japanese adolescent's (127 males and 227 females) and American adolescent's views on their relationships with their parents were studied. Japanese male students showed the lowest scores on both the father-child and mother child emotional tie scales, but indicated the highest scores on both the paternal and maternal control scales. It was found that the Japanese students who showed strong emotional ties to their mothers also showed high scores in the scale of attachment to their fathers. American students tended to have stronger emotional ties to their fathers than did Japanese students. In both countries, female students tended to have stronger mother-child emotional ties than male students. In addition, Japanese female students tended to show low scores on the self-reliant scale.
An oblique Big Five primary pattern for the items of mono-polar scales in the ACL (Adjective Check List, Japanese version) was obtained, through the Jöreskog's (1965) incomplete oblique procrustes factor rotation method. First, a short history of the Big Five theory for personality traits, the outline of the ACL scale, and the recent factor analytic studies concerning the ACL were reviewed. Second, the object and method for the present study, the selection of adjective items and the factor rotational methods of confirmed type were discussed. The results, regarded as an oblique primary pattern, supported the Big Five assumption.