This study reports the synchronization between vocal behaviors and motor actions in infants at the prelinguistic stage. Four Japanese infants were studied from the age of 4-6 months to 11 months. For all infants, a 40-min segment was selected from the 60-90min observation recording taken on each month. All the vocalizations and motor actions recorded. in the segment were transcribed. The results show that a behavioral synchronization occurred between vocalizations and rhythmic actions in infants at the prelinguistic stage. The synchronization was particularly obvious in the month immediately before the onset of canonical babbling. These findings suggest that the synchronization between vocalizations and rhythmic actions may have the function of promoting infants to produce canonical babbling, that is indispensable for the acquisition of spoken language.
The purposes of this study are to construct the College Life Anxiety Scale for measuring the level of college students' anxiety and to examine its reliability and validity. After collecting items about the anxiety in college life, factor analysis was performed on the data obtained from 2 782 college students. The result, firstly, showed that the College Life Anxiety Scale consisting of 30 items had three factors, which were daily life anxiety, test anxiety and college maladjustment. Secondly, it was indicated that the Scale had both high test-retest reliability and internal consistency (.82 and .84, respectively). It was also suggested that the Scale had high content, clinical, and criterion-related validities. In conclusion, the College Life Anxiety Scale is well able to measure the level of college students' anxiety in their usual life.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of negative-sentence suggestions on feelings and behaviors. Feelings and behaviors were classified under the axes of pleasant-unpleasant, and low-high activity. Sixteen subjects (six males and ten females) were induced into a light hypnotic state, and were given suggestions of feelings and behaviors in negative-sentence form. Aside of the above-mentioned suggestions, suggestions of neutral feeling and behavior in affirmative-sentence form was given as baseline. The subjects were then requested to rate the effect, which was stated in affirmative-sentence form. For example, if subject was given a negative-sentence suggestion that your feelings are not sad, then subject asked to rate his feelings of sadness. The results showed that negative-sentence suggestions had affirmative effects when the rated feeling was unpleasant, regardless of its activity level. They had negative effects when the rated feeling or behavior was pleasant and low in activity.
The present study investigated the effects of accuracy motivation and face attractiveness on person perception. Sixty-two female undergraduate and professional school students perticipated in an experiment. Half of them were motivated to form accurate impression by experimental manipulations of accountability (expecting to describe their impression later to a third party). After studying behavioral descriptions and photograph of target, they were asked to form impression and recall the descriptions. Main results were as follows: (1) On social desirability, accuracy motivation redused the effect of positive face. (2) Accuracy motivation induced subjects to recall more behavioral descriptions.
To examine the relationship between short-term memory deficit and severity of the dementia in Alzheimer's disease, free recall of word lists was investigated. Twenty-seven patients with diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and twelve age-matched controls participated in the study. Patients were divided into two subgroups: fourteen mild and thirteen moderate dementia by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). To evaluate short-term and long-term memory components separately, two measures were used: recency effect in the serial-position free-recall curve, and intra-trial retention interval developed by Tulving and Colotla (1970). Mildly demented patients showed a long-term memory deficit with almost normal short-term memory, but moderate ones showed an overall reduction in both measures. These results suggest that memory disorder in Alzheimer's disease changes not only quantitatively but also qualitatively with the progress of dementia, and short-term memory is relatively preserved in the early stage of the disease.
Having defined the distinction between hypnagogic imagery and dreams, a preliminary study on the individual differences in the experience of visual hypnagogic imagery was conducted. (1) A questionnaire on visual hypnagogic experience was administered to 796 students. The results suggested that previous researches on the incidence of this experience might have suffered from ambiguous definitions. (2) The Scale of Mental Imagery (Hasegawa, 1992) was administered to 330 of the same students, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to 305 students, and S-A Creativity Test (Sozosei-shinri-kenkyukai, 1969) to 221 students. The frequency of hypnagogic experiences was significantly associated with the scores of “the vividness of mental imagery”, “neuroticism”, and “creativity”. (3) Based on these results, a proposed research problem on hypnagogic imagery was discussed.
It has been proposed that self referent memory of verbal materials requires multidimensional processing that corresponds to the person's cognitive structure of the self (Horiuchi, 1996). In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that self reference effect was due to information processing that was deeper and broader in self referent than in semantic or other-referent memory. In Experiment 1, recall under self reference condition was better than semantic condition. However, six-dimension processing condition, with extroversion, emotional stability, etc., was not significantly better than the self reference condition. In Experiment 2, with mother as the other, other-referent memory was as good as that under three-dimension processing condition, using such dimensions of others as social desirability. However, recall under these conditions was inferior to that under self reference condition. These results suggest that the self-reference effect is due to the multidimensional property of self cognition.
The ability to communicate effectively has a profound impact on academic ability and social status in the United States. As such, communication avoidance may impart critical consequences on individuals who suffer from it. Within the communication discipline, communication avoidance is an extensive body of research with a relatively long history. Central to communication avoidance research is the concept of communication apprehension (CA). However, in comparison with research conducted in the United States, CA research in Japan remains in its genesis. This review thus focuses on communication apprehension and related constructs. Starting with an explanation of the magnitude of the problem of communication avoidance, a definition of CA is presented, and an overview of the related constructs of reticence, shyness, and other communication-related fears is introduced. Basic CA treatment programs and personality correlates of CA are also covered. The review closes by offering suggestions for future CA research in Japan.