A pseudo-orthogonal and an oblique primary factor rotation criteria based on the principle of minimizing the sum of absolute errors (MSAE) are proposed. As a revised form of Kashiwagi (1965)'s geomax criterion, the orthogonal factor rotation criterion based on the principle of MSAE is discussed so as to give a preliminary guide to our present proposals. The principles of the pseudo-orthogonal and the oblique primary factor rotation. criteria are explained in the extensive forms of the orthogonal case to the oblique ones. The proposed criteria are applied to several numerical examples including two kinds of Thurstone (1947)'s box problems and it is shown that they reproduce almost perfectly the psychological assumptions in the original studies.
This study was to investigate the intra-scale position effects of the neutral category for judgments of length. 41 kinds of five-category scales (basic scales) were created and clustered into 5 groups according to the intra-scale position of the neutral category. S made their judgments of the 14 lengths of horizontal lines by a five-category scale (41 kinds in total). The most important finding of this study was that the mean value of stimulus length judged by the neutral category varied significantly by shifting the intra-scale position of the neutral category. This result suggested that the intra-scale position of the neutral category was one of the most important factors to affect human decision-making process.
“Same-different” responses to arrays cosisting of 2 rows of 1, 3, 5, and 7 colored alpha-numerics were observed over 8 sessions of a four-week period with respect to whether every pair of the upper and lower items had the same attribute of either class (letter and digit) or color (red and blue). In the class attribute, the relation between the number of item-pairs (N) and reaction time (RT) was linear in every condition, and slopes for “same” were 275 msec in 1-2 sessions and 219 msec in 7-8 sessions, while those for “different” were 165 and 112 msec, respectively. These findings supported the hypothesis of the serial self-terminating processing of spatial information from class attribute, though the practice accelerated the processing rates to some extent. In the color attribute, difference between “same” and “different” RTs was not found, and RTs and N were almost independent with each other in 7-8 sessions, though the slope of N-RT function was still significant in early sessions. These suggested that spatial information from color attribute was essentially processed in parallel mode, and the practice had an effect to eliminate some nonessential operations accompanied in early sessions.
2 experiments were carried out to investigate whether constructing a narrative from serial lists of words was effective and whether this facilitating effect was observed in the condition of constructing a narrative from half of each list. In Exp. I, S learned 12 serial lists of words each under one of 2 conditions. After the 12 lists had been learned, a probe test of each list showed narrative S recalling with more facility than control S. In Exp. II, S learned 8 lists of 12 words under one of three conditions. Results indicated that whole-narrative S were the most effective.
60 Kindergarteners and 78 fourth graders learned a paired-associate picture list in the sentence condition, by hearing a sentence combining the stimulus and the response items in an interaction; in the picture condition, viewing a picture combining the same items in the equivalent interaction; or in the control condition (side-by-side presentation). In the fourth graders both the sentence and the picture conditions were superior to the control condition, while in the kindergarteners only the sentence condition was superior to that. Condition by contextual meaningfulness interaction was significant; in the anomalous pairs the sentence and the picture had the effect to facilitate learning but in the normal pairs they had no effect.
92 children aged from 58 to 97 months were successively given verbal labeling training (phase 1), motor-response training (phase 2) and mediation test (phase 3) in accordance with three-phases mediation paradigms. It was found, as had been expected, that for 5-6 years children the familiar word labeled to stimulus in phase 1 had the effect to induce the mediated responses in phase 3, while the nonsense syllable had no effect, and that for 7 years children both the familiar word and nonsense syllable had the effect mentioned above.