In this report we consider the group stratification and its stability from a few points of view. By using a large number of primary school boys who have been typical leaders and followers in school life, we organized the following three combination. 1) a leader and a follower. 2) a leader and a leader. 3) a follower and a follower. And then these combinations were placed in the following three experimental conditions. 1) Group members were placed in a spontaneous situation. 2) Group members were given an adult leader's pressure. 3) The insight which each group member has had to that situation was changed. In these conditions we studied the processes of change in the type of group stratification and the degree of stability of member relation in the group stratification. The results of these experiments are as follows : 1. The type of groupstratification is determined sometimes by the insight which each member has on the situation or at othertimes by the barrier which is constituted by an outside factor. It is felt that the type of group stratification may be represented by the free movement region which each member has in the situation in relation to other members. 2. The degree of stability of group member relation in group stratification is influenced by the degree of definition of the boundaries of the free movement region which each member has, it is believed. 3. But these cencepts free movement region and the degree of definition of boundary, have not been defind operationally. Therefore we will consider these concepts experimentally in the near future.
This investigation studies the effect of satiation when the subject is exposed to the repeated stimulation of a simple, monotonous sound a long time. Six observers comprising four psychologists, one musician who is a composer as a conductor and the writer himself took part in this experiment. They were presented with metronome clicks repeated at the rate of 120 clicks per minute for a duration of about 30 minutes. They listened to these clicks with closed eyes and subsequently reported upon the total phenomena experienced during the sitting. Results. 1. As the experiment went on, the following changes took place in various phases of the auditory Gestalts : a. Changes in accent. b. Changes in sound quailty. c. Changes in grouping. d. Changes in spatial localization. 2. In the succeeding stages, especially in the latter part of the experiment, at times the “figure” character of metronome sounds diminished spontaneously, while at other times the endeavour to suppress the appearance of “figure” character was evident in the observers' reports. 3. As the metronome clicks took the character of the “ground”, the other sensory experiences such as organic sensation and nises other than the clicks themselves took the “figure” character and finally the perceiving activity of the observers passed into the image-forming activity. 4. The musician and the writer were led into the formation of musical images while the other observers were engaged in day-dreams whose contents were mostly of the ego-involved daily happenings.
1. The only noted contribution which experimentally investigated the grasp of the musical melody is the study of Otto Abraham in 1923. He was in his experiment the intervals between each note in the melodies were not sung precisely by this subjects as every musical notation indicates, but they were modified variously according to a certain principle (Abraham effect). 2. With his prominent auditory ability, he could execute the work, but the melody which he took up as a material for his study was but one, that is, “Deutschland über alles.” We haved re-examined the effect in regard to the Japanese people as well as to the melodies composed by them, employing the talkie film recording device for the purpose of the optical measurement of the pitches. 3. “Kojo-no-Tsuki” which is a famous Japanese air and “Kono-michi” a children's song composed by K. Yamada, one of the most celebrated contemporary composers, were selected as the materials. The former was sung by heart eight times by three subjects, the later three times by three, both without any accompaniment. 4. Our result, abstractred from the records of the two melodies by the abovementioned optical measurement method, are shown in Table 4 and 5. Intervals are shown in both tables with the unit of “cent” as Abraham did. 5. Intervals No. 1, 13, 22, and 37 in the experiment (VI) (Table 4) are homoharmonic, nevertheless they are all in upward slop. On the contrary No. 8, 29, and 34 are in downward slope. Every minor second interval, No. 4, 5, 16, 17, 40, and 41, is remarkably diminished. Intervals No. 9 and 10 however enlarged in the opposite direction. So-called leap intervals No. 23, 47 and 28 are expanded obviously. 6. Table 5 indicates results of the experiment of the melody “Kono michi.” Interval No. 5, the so-called leap interval, is clearly expanded. On the other hand No. 2. an octave, which seems to be a leap interval is not enlarged at all, it is quite reasonable on account of its disposition as a dead interval. And each minor second intervals, No. 21, 22, 28 and 29, is diminished as in the preceding experiment. 7. Thus various modifications of intervals which are revealed in the melody when they are sung by heart was investigated by the optical measurement which has a wealth of the objectivity. And in the case on our people and the Japanese melodies too, the validity of Abraham effect was clearly demonstrated almost in all aspects.
1. This investigation was undertaken 1) to ascertain whether or not the formula f=φ.d (s=perceived saize, φ=visual angle, d=perceived distance) can generally hold trues; 2) to determine the relation between the perceived size and the viewing distance under various conditions; and to find out, if possible, the main factors which determine size constancy. 2. For testing the first problem, values of s and d were measured experimentally, while φ was kept constant. The experimental objects are cardbord discs or lightened discs, as to the size of which observers might have no particular assumption from their past experience. The result showed that there existed a certain condition in which the formula s=φ.d did not hold true (Table 5; Table 6; Table 7), and further that physically larger objects were perceived nearer than the physically smaller objects (Table 9), under the condition in which the perception of distance was ambiguous. 3. To investigate the second problem, observations were first made in commonplacen surroundings, such as an ordinary room, corridor or balcony, which were physically rectangular in shape, homogeneously lightend and frameworks of which were within the observer's visual field. Such spaces have phenomenally different shapes according to the difference of their physical depth : in cases they are long, their frameworks are perceived to be converging towards the end of the spaces. On the contrary, if they are short, the frameworks are perceived to be diverging, when they are observed binocularly keeping the fixation points at the center of the spaces. Results indicated that the types of curves showing the relation between the perceived size of objects and veiwing distance depended upon the physical depth of the spaces to which they belonged : that is, the curve ascended where the space was shorter than 5 meters in length (Table 10; Table 13) and descended where the space was longer than 7 meters (Table 11; Table 12), while it was nearly horizontal and liner where the space was 5.5 meters (Table 14). These facts seem to show that the perceived size of an object is determined by the phonomenal shape of the space to which it belongs (Fig. 2). 4. But, when the space 5.5 meters in length was slightly darkened the curve became convex instead of linear (Table 15, Fig. 3). And almost linear curve was obtained when the observation was made in the bright balcony which had the length of 120 meters (Table 16, Fig. 4). These facts seem to show that the flatness of the curve depends on the phenomenal straightness of the framework of the space. 5. Observations made in a completely darkened room revealed that values os Sc/Ss (Ss=physical size of the standard object, Sc=physical size of the comparison object equalled to the standard object) obtained by the ordinary observers were smaller (Group I in Table 18 and 19) than those obtained by the particular observers who had been accustomed to work in this dark room as the experimenter and the assistant (Group II in Table 18; Table 21) : the average Sc/Ss for Group II was nearly 1 up to 4.5 meters even when observed monocularly and above 1 when observed binocularly (Fig. 6). These facts indicate the presence of the effect of past experience on the perception of size. 6. It is to be presumed that the phenomenon of the size constancy in commonplace surroundings is probably a function of the similar kind of past experience with what Group II had, and, hence, that the curves obtained in commonplaces surroundings may coincide with the curves obtained by Group II in the dark room, provided that proper adjustments are made with respect to the differences between these two conditions. In an attempt to compare these two kinds of curves mentioned above, averagd values of Sc/Ss within a certain range of distances were calculated from the curve obtained by Group II (For explanation of this method, see Fig. 7).
As the basis of the study of development of different characteristics, it is important to understand the relation between physical maturation of the individual body and the structure and functions of the organism. The present paper is the report of experiment in which the author has tried to establish some standard of evaluating the degree of physical growth. For that purpose the author has adopted the X-ray picture of the carpal bones. 1. Taking X-ray pictures Subjects : 160 in number (age : from 7 to 12) Site of photographing : X-ray of Medical Dept., Kanazawa Univ. Under uniform conditions, pictures of eight wrist bones and two epiphyses of each person were taken. 2. Measurement of the pictures. (1) The major and minor diameters of the ossified area of each bone were measured. (2) The product of the two diameters was adopted as substitute value for the area. (3) The substitute values of each bones' areas were added together and the sum of them was regarded as a measure to show the degree of the growth. 3. Determination of degree of the growth. Method A : Standards of skeletal Age were obtained from the results of procedure (3). According to these standerds, carpal age and growth quotient were determined. In this method no attention is paid to stature, though it has common feature of age unit scale. Method B : To establish suitable standards which are obtained when Age and stature are simultaneously taken into consideration, an attempt was made to devise the formulae based upon C. F. Gauss's Method of Least Squares. The formular obtained are as follow ; For the age 6 to 12 (male) Z=23. 44x+ (-14.13)y+8.55 For the age 6 to 11 (femal) Z=21.50x+(-11.34)y+12.39 When Z is the total of each subject's substitute values of each wrist bones' area, x stands for age (by the month) and y stands for stature (in centimetre) and these are referred to as “Ohira's formular for calculating standers of ossified are as of each wrist bones and carpal Age.” 4. The propriety of result obtained by Method B described above was investigated. The author examined the correlation between them and the carpal Age, and growth quotient by method B, chronological Age, physical structure, physical functions or mental development, and came to the conclusion that the results were fairly appropriate.