The periodic delay of reaction time in serial performance can be considered as a manifestation of the process which controls activities needed to maintain the work. This paper examined simple color naming performance as a function of the periodic delay of reaction time and the effects of experimentally-inserted pauses. Sixty-five students served as subjects. The results showed: (a) those subjects showing clear periodic delays of reaction time made less errors than those not showing clear periodicity, and (b) when the pause interval was consistent with or shorter than the subjects' own periodicity of reaction time delay, the experimentally-inserted pauses decreased blockings and led to smoother work process. These findings were considered from the viewpoint of causes of the blocking and the mechanism which determines the work process.
Phonetic symbolism has been believed to be caused by language habits which make a speech sound, through association with the connotation of the words in which it occurs, take on that connotation. Fifty Japanese subjects heard 32 pairs of CVC nonsense syllables with -[r], [b]-[v], and [s]-[θ] at the initial position and they were asked to judge which one of each pair would sound darker, heavier, and sharper. Significantly different connotations were observed between the paired speech sounds even though they were regarded as allophones in the same phonemes. The results tend to suggest that phonetic symbolism can not be caused only by language habits but also by tonal properties of speech sounds.
The stochastic process of occurrence of errors in a simple and monotonous task was investigated. Previous studies used the task of adding pairs of numbers such as Kraepelin Test, and found that the group data fitted well to the Pólya-Eggenberger distribution. It was inferred from this fact that the occurrence of errors in the individual subject obeyed the Poisson distribution and the Poisson parameter indicating the individual difference was distributed as the Gamma. Because the occurrence of errors is rather rare in the test, it is difficult to verify the above inference in individual data. In this report, in order to identify intra-individual distributions, we used “Amefuri” test as a task in which more errors could be expected to occur, and we could identify the distributions without prolonging the test period. It may be compared to the method of accelerated life test in Reliability Engineering.
Event-related potentials to tone pips were recorded while subjects listened selectively to one of four kinds of stimuli. High tone pips and a message in female voice were mixed and presented to one ear, and low tones and a message in male voice to the other ear. When attention was directed to tones, a slow negative shift was observed to be superimposed on the N1 (and P2) component evoked by the attended tones; when attention was switched to messages, those N1 and P2 amplitudes to tones in attended and unattended ears were reduced. The attention-related reduction of N1 and P2 amplitudes and the development of the negativity were interpreted in relation to early and late stages of the human information processing.
This study examined the somatization in psychosomatic disease by the Rorschach technique. The Rorschach test was administered to the psychosomatic, the neurotic, and the psychosomatic with mental complaints. Subjects were further classified into pain, functional, and organic disorder groups. The psychosomatic and the neurotic showed a better control of the ego on the Rorschach scores, but the difference in several variables were recognized between the two. In three subcategory groups, scores showed the correspondence between the developmental ego stage and the somatization, and the organics were found to be the typical group of PSD. From these findings, it is suggested that the somatization is caused by the splitting mechanism between inner emotion and an adjustment to the outer world, and can be explained as kind of defense mechanism.
This study examined developmental changes in the narcissistic tendency in women by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire was given to 235 women in pregnancy (P group) and the second to 49 women in confinement (C group) who were randomly chosen from among the 235 women surveyed first. Women when pregnant were more sensitive and more narcissistic compared with when not pregnant. The narcissistic tendency associated with Exhibition found for adolescent non-pregnant women (Hosoi, 1978a) was also found for the women in pregnancy, with addition of association with Ego Ideal. They were also concerned with themselves more than their fetus.
The orthogonal rotation method of Kashiwagi (1965) as an objectification of the graphical factor rotation was extended to the oblique reference-axes method. First of all, the basic notions concerning the oblique factor rotation were discussed after reviewing the recent development. Secondly, the principle of the oblique reference-axes method of Thurstone (1947) was reviewed, and, thirdly, a proposal for the oblique reference-axes method based on the minimization of the maximum values of the absolute errors (MINIMAX) and of the sum of them (ABSMIN) was made. The orthogonal factor rotation as its special case was discussed after explaining the computational procedure together with the numerical examples based on the data of Thurstone's 20 box problem and of Harmen's 24 psychological tests.
If high anxiety subjects (HA) measured by MAS have higher chronic anxiety or more sensitivity to noise stress than low anxiety subjects (LA), it is hypothesized that HA's performance decrement under noise will be markedly shown. Ten HA and 10 LA performed 4-choice serial reaction tasks under white noise (95dB) and control (65dB) conditions. (a) Results were follows: In LA, the noise increased error response, but HA was not affected. (b) The state anxiety score (self report measures) of LA increased under noise condition, but in HA, this increment was statistically nonsignificant. These results suggest inconsistent relationships between types of stress and personality trait anxiety (MAS).
When 4 lights arranged in a line in the order of A, B, C, D, are flashed successively in the order of A, C, B, D at a moderately high speed, two beta-movements can be seen, one across A and B, and the other C and D. Bregman and Achim (1973) named this phenomenon VISS (visual stream segregation). Four experiments were performed under various conditions for the spatial distance between the lights. Subjects were required to find the upper limits of ISI for producing VISS. It was found that VISS is affected mainly by the distance between the two beta-movements, namely, that between B and C.
To determine the nature of effects of a preceding letter stimulus upon the recognition of a following letter stimulus, 20 subjects were sequentially and tachistoscopically presented pairs of letters or pairs of random patterns, which consist of the same number of elements, and asked to judge whether they were “same” or “different” in form. Four variable interstimulus intervals (ISI) between the lst stimuli and the 2nd stimuli were employed as parameters. Results obtained were as follows: (a) percentages of correct responses for the letters were not significantly different from those for the random patterns, and (b) percentages of correct responses for the “same” matching tasks were significantly higher than those for the “different” matching tasks, but, differences in number of correct responses between the two tasks diminished as ISI increased. These results reveal structural, rather than naming, effects of preceding letters in the information processing of matching single letters.