Developmental change of emotional reactivity in Wistar rats was investigated by two experiments using the Runway Test. Rats were tested at 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 days of age for three succesive days. First, a cross-sectional comparison of behavior in the Runway Test showed that 30-day-old rats were faster to enter the runway region, faster to reach the end section, and traversed more sections than other age groups. Rats at 60 and 90 days of age defecated more bolles and urinated more. Second, longitudinal comparisons showed that the ambulation of 30- and 40-day-old rats increased gradually over test days, suggesting lowered emotional reactivity. But 60- and 90-day-old rats showed asymptotic level of ambulation and no increase between days and less defecation. These results suggested that postweaning prejuvenile rats showed a temporary reduction of emotional reactivity in novel environments. Also, their emotional reactivity elevated gradually, and remained stable in each individual level.
Asian students of seven Japanese language schools participated, and data of 292 Chinese, Taiwanese, and Korean students were analyzed in this study. They were asked about (1) attitudes toward their own and other cultures, (2) high regard for their country and culture, (3) self-efficacy and social skills at the moment and when they were in their country, (4) aspired level of social skills in this country, and (5) feeling of adjustment to life in Japan. Main findings were as follows: (1) psychological factors had stronger effects on the feeling than demographic factors. Self-efficacy in particular had a strong effect. (2) Attitudes to own and other cultures were related to self-efficacy and the feeling. (3) Structural analysis revealed a difference in the feeling between students from socialist and capitalist regions. Based on the analysis, a causal model was proposed of psychological and demographic factors leading to feeling of adjustment, and Asian students' adjustment to life in Japan was discussed in terms of adjustment to their inner, psychological environment.
Four pigeons engaged in chained schedules in a closed economy. Schedules in the first links were always FR1 and those in the second link changed through the experiment. In Stage 1, costs (responses per reinforcer) in VI schedule were calculated. Costs increased as a function of VI values. Average values of these costs were used as FR values in Stage 2 and effects of the cost on the reinforcement rates were examined. Using the average value of spending times in the FR schedule (Stage 2) as VI and FI values in Stage 3 and 4, effects of the delay time on the reinforcement rates were examined. Reinforcement rates were calculated to the total (first+second) links. Results showed that demand curve in VI coincided with that in FR while that in FI explicitly deviated downward at the lowest value. These data provide that decrease in demand depended on an increase of delay time rather than cost and that the eating behavior defined by the time allocation between the first and second links was specific to each schedule.
The aim of this study is to obtain basic data useful to evaluate the riding comfort of railway vehicles. The apparatus used in the present experiment made it possible to simulate various vibrations of railway vehicles. Twenty-two adult subjects participated in this experiment. They were exposed to lateral vibration with varying peak and root mean square (rms) accelerations and frequencies. The types and ranges of vibrations used in this experiment approximated to the typical vibrations of railway vehicles. The subjects were asked to rate the intensity of each vibration given to them successively, using the 7-step rating scale. Results indicated that both peak and rms accelerations significantly affected for the evaluation, although the effect of frequency was not significant. As for interactions, it was found that there were significant interacting effects between frequency and peak acceleration, between frequency and rms acceleration, and between peak and rms accelerations. It was also found that the relationship between the rms acceleration and the evaluated score changed with varying peak accelerations.
The present experiment was conducted to investigate how prior information affects subsequent person perception and when perceivers can control such an effect. One of three types of trait related words (i.e., hostility-related, friendliness-related, and neutral words) was subliminally or supraliminally presented to subjects, and subsequently, subjects rated the impression of four targets: a hostile person, a friendly person, a neutral person and themselves. Although results did not show that supraliminally presented words affected targets'impressions, they showed that the impressions sometimes varied with the valence of subliminally presented words regardless of targets' valence. The mechanism and controllability of priming effects in person perception were discussed.
Selection of others for comparison influences the outcome of self-assessment. The present study attempted to examine the effect of expectation for self enhancement on strategic selection of comparisons. A questionnaire study was conducted with 169 undergraduates, who responded to four sets of questions. First, they listed ten abilities each for three areas that desired to acquire in high-level, in average-level, and undesired to acquire. Then, they evaluated themselves in comparison with others on the thirty abilities, and indicated whom they chose as comparisons. Finally, perceived probabilities were assessed of acquiring each ability. Results showed that selection of superior others was more when evaluated abilities were desired to acquire in high-level and perceived probability high than otherwise. This suggested that comparison with superior others was made if expectation for self enhancement was high. The expectation therefore affects the likelihood of self assessment behavior, and self assessment is a necessary component of future self enhancement.
Two studies investigated the tendency of people to enhance their close relationship and to efface oneself in front of their partners. In Study 1, 193 college students estimated the extent to which their best friendship is better than other's best friendship. Overall, they showed a strong tendency of enhancing own relationship; they rated their best friendship to be better than the average. Within the close relationship, however, they showed self-effacement; they rated their best friends, compared with themselves, in more positive way. In Study 2, 41 husband-wife couples attended as subjects. Again, they showed marital relationship-enhancement and relative self-effacement. Furthermore, their subjective happiness was mainely explained by own relationship enhancement. These results were discussed from several points.
This study investigated the effect of prior information on the extraction stage, particularly on the amount of behavior extraction, of information processing when perceiving ongoing behavior of others. In terms of prior information they received, 102 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: familiarity, desirability, and neutral conditions. Twelve video clips, each about 30 seconds long, of a male stimulus actor in daily life were made. The theme of each clip was one of the three: familiarity, desirability, or activity. The subjects were instructed to form an impression of the male actor, and to press a button when they saw an impression-relevant action and release it when it was over. Results suggested that subjects extracted behavior that was relevant to prior information more frequently, and extraction rates were higher for relevant video clips. However, impression change was found after the observation-extraction task. Hence, it implies that prior information affects the extraction stage, but not the judgment stage, of perceiving ongoing behavior of others.
This study investigated perceived social support, emotional as well as instrumental, from family members and friends, and examined their stress-buffering effects on depression in college students and middle-aged adults in Japan. For both samples, family members were relatively more important sources of instrumental support, whereas friends were primarily perceived as emotional support providers. No gender differences were found for the middle-aged adults, but as in previous studies, women in the college sample perceived more support for them than men. A series of hierarchical regression analyses with support by stress interaction terms revealed distinctive patterns of support effects on depression for men and women of each sample. Characteristics of perceived social support in each sample were described, and overall results suggested that it is essential in social support research to take the meanings of supportive relationship into consideration, in the context of social and developmental factors of the samples under study.
Induction is called category-based induction if its premises and conclusion are of the form “All members of a category C have property P.” Osherson, Smith, Wilkie, Lopez, and Shafir (1990) advanced similarity-coverage model. But their data from a quantitative test of specific induction did not necessarily support the model. Three experiments investigate whether their modeling of similarity and coverage was not valid or their experiments were not valid. The following results were obtained. Coverage did not affect confirmation judgement in premisevariation type induction which Osherson et al. (1990) dealt with, and coverage effect was verified in conclusionvariation type induction which is more everyday and needs less processing load. In the latter case, coverage had to be weighted by typicality of conclusion in an inclusive category. And when mixed inductions were included, confirmation judgement was based not on coverage but on a belonging relation to an upper category and similarity between premise categories and a conclusion category.
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of recognition memory of test items to test-retest effect. For this aim, two tests consisting of 17 items from self-evaluative consciousness scale and 24 dummy items were administered to 163 female college students at an interval of one week. Although the results showed clear test-retest effects of type A and B (Hasegawa, 1995b), namely the changes in their self-ratings on both positive and negative items toward a more adjustive level, the test-retest effect of type II (Hayamizu, 1977), namely the increase in internal consistency of subscale, did not appear. The results also showed no influence of the rate of item recognition to the test-retest effects, leading to a modification of some part of the hypotheses. This result suggests that it is implicit memory rather than recognition memory that is related to test-retest effect.