The purpose of this study was to examine how mental disturbance induced by electro-convulsive shock will recover as time elapses. The subjects studied were mental patients, who were not greatly disturbed and capable of cooperating in test situation. A total of 24 subjects were used. Prior to shock, case histories were obtained from each subject in individual interviews. Name, age, birth-place and significant past events were recorded. Electro-convulsive shock was then administered producing a state of unconsciousness. After shock, in order to determine whether or not the subjects were capable of recalling past experiences, we again interviewed them, and tested retention details. Recovery-time was also measured. The latter period refers to the time that the subjects need to correctly respond to the examiner's questions. Recovery speed was calculated by using the inverse number of the recoverer-time. Eeperimental results were as follows : After shock treatment, the reflex movement to pain stimulus recovered first, acknowledgement of their names and response to calling followed. Next, recognition of their surroundings, figure perception, and recognition of left and right and up and down recovered. In due time, distance perception recovered, and about this stage the patients showed recognition of absolute spatial direction. Memory of past experiences also recovered. All types of visual perception did not recover at the same time, vls. the recovery-period varied according to the difference of visual functions. Fig. 2 shows their course of recovery. The recovery proceess of life history (events of the past) display notable characteristics, namely older memories recovered more quickly than newer ones. This is shown in Fig. 1. The abscissa indicates the time-passage from past to pretsent and the ordinate, the recovery-speed. Five typical patients were used for this figure. To explain the above mentioned results, we proposed a hypothesis of “memory stratum”. We suppose that perception and memory activity, which shows an hierarchical structure, depend on the stratum structure of the cerebral cortex. Self-awareness, such as awareness of the name which formed in childhood is assumed to be localized at the bottom stratum, memory of past events, near the bottom stratum, and perception of the environment, in the upper parts of the cortex. In other words the surface of the cortex represents consciousness of the present, the bottom stratum the self-awareness, and the intermediate stratum, the activity of past memories. It seems that electric shock disturbes the surface or the upper parts of the cerebral cortex most markedly, while its effect apparently weakens as the bottom stratum is reached. The difference of recovery-speeds substantiates this hypothesis.
Many researches had hitherto been done regarding the physiological effects of frustration, some of them dealing with the effects of failure. However, most of these studies were not concerned exclusively with failure but took into account the after-effects of past conflict or physical punishment. In the present study, we have left such factors out of consideration and are concerned solely with the physiological effects of failure as manifested in and measured by changes in galvanic skin conductance and in respiration. 49 subjects, all delinquent children in Yokohama Juvenile Classification Office, were divided into groups A, B, C ; D and E. The children were then made to undertake 18 short-time mental work assignments, the success or failure of which were controlled by the experimenter. (Table. 1) Those subjects who have made successive failures manifested special facial expressions and some physiological changes. The statistical analysis showgd that : 1) Increase of conductance during work tends to be suppressed. 2) The normal decrease of conductance during rest periods is often replaced by an increase of conductance (Fig. 1, Table 2). 3) Deepened respiration is frequently observed during rest periods. 4) Other respiratory disturbances are also frequently observed, which are retarded, deep, of small I-fraction and sometimes followed by respiratory pause, as seen in Fig. 2 (Table 3). 5) These various physiological changes have been found to be related to one another, 6) and also with special facial expressions such as tears. 7) Some of these changes, both physiological and facial, are also observed during questioning the subjects of their life history. 8) and it is concluded that the special facial expressions described (probably manifesting sorrow) can in general be expressed in physiological terms by frequent GSR, deepend respiration, as well as the other respiratory disturbances shown in Fig. 2. (Table 4). 9) With the exception of the facial expressions described, we may conclude that, in general, as a result of failure, conductance tends to decrease during both work and rest, and respiration tends to some extent to be retarded, deep and of small I-fraction. It is probable that the facts described are manifestations of depression and disappointment which tends to decrease physiological activity, while conflict, on the other hand, as several investigators have observed, tends to increase such activity. When subjects become saddened, it would seem that there is greater decrease in respiratory activity and increase of GSR. The weakened incentive to work resulting from failure also seems to produce physiological changes during work. 10) There is no appreciable correlation between the facts described above and with I. Q. or the degree of delinquency (Table 5), so that it would seem that such effects of failure are not peculiar to or characteristic of delinquent children, but are common to all human subjects. 11) However, the rate of conductance decrease during work tends to vary directly with the degree of delinquency in children. This shows that this experiment provides a useful test of frustration tolerance.
1. Problem. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the individual's loadings of the type-factors in the social attitudes, using Q-technique of factor analysis. The various problems involved in the Q-technique were summarized. Those problems, for example, were the relationship between R-technique and Q-technique, and the method of small sampling, etc. However, the main purpose of this report was to throw some light on the “Type-factors”in the various social attitudes. It should be noted, therefore, that those controversial points were not thoroughly (discussed here in this article). But, for the time being, we followed the suggestion of Stephenson and Koga that Q-technique is in keeping with the modern logic of scientific method and offers almost unlimitedly promising perspective for an experimental approach to psychology. 2. Procedure and results. 20 males and 20 females were selected randomly from 781 students in fourteen universities and one high school. The used attitude scales were the same in the second report. These, attitude scale values were ranked on the ten degrees equally, and the individual's ranking value were intercorrelated. The groups of males and females were treated separately. Then, those intercorrelation tables were factor analysed. In this experiment, we interpreted the factor before the rotation, for such the procedure has been taken in other reports in this field. The findings were as follows : a) We extracted two important factors and called the first factor “general and popular factor”. Namely, it seems that the individuals heavily loaded with the first factor have the general and popular social attitudes. b) Because the individuals heavily loaded with the second factor tended to have the unpopular and independent social attitudes, we called it “unpopular independent factor”. c) The results of the female were essentially the same as the male. But, among the female, there were the individuals we can not interprete in terms of both the first and second factors. We called this case “the uncharacteristic factor in the female”. d) It is an interesting fact that the students occupy about 60 percentage in the first factor.
The Absolute Method (M1), the Method of Single Initial Standard (M2) and the Relative Method (M3) were used in lifted weight experiment. The materials used as stimuli in the experiment were hollow brass cylinders, 3cm. both in height and in diameter, each end of which were closed up. The Cylinders were weighted with solder, and plated with nickel. The stimuli were presented to the observer by means of revolving top-table which was regulated by the experimenter. In M2 and M3, the standard stimulus was 100 grams. In the three methods, the following variable stimulus series were used : S1 79, 82, ........., 100, ........., 103, 106 gram S2 85, 88, ........., 100, .........112, 115 S3 24, 97, ........., 100, ..........118, 121 The PSE's were calculated by tke modified constant method, and the following results have been obtained : In the Method of Single Initial Standard, the presented constant stimulus does not play the function of the standard stimulus of comparison process, and the judgment given by the observers in response to the stimuli are those based on the used stimulus series, so that the method somewhat resembles the Absolute Method in its character. 2) It has been reascertained that in tbe Absolute Method tke judgments on the stimuli are formed on the basis of the used stimulus series. 3) In the Method of Single Initial Standard, also, the judgments on the stimuli are formed on the basis of the used stimulus series. Though statistically it may not be highly significant, the PS of the symmetrical stimulus series has shown middle value of the PSE and the PS of the other two methods. The fact shows that the constant stimulus presented first partly plays the function of the standard stimulus. 4) In the Relative Method, there also exist differences between PSE's of each stimulus series. The deviation of PSE of S1 from 100 grams is more remarkable than that of S3. This fact demands closer investigation. 5) The analysis of the PSE's of the symmetrical stimulus series (S2) in the three methods, indicates clearly that it is not adequate to explain the deviation of PS from the middle point of the used series by means of the sinking absolute series. It is pointed out that the phenomenon is caused by the special effect of the situation in which the stimuli organize a series (Serial effects).
Problem. The extinction of lever-pressing responses (L) of a rat in a Skinner-box (A) which lead him so longer to food (G) may be viewed as due to the changed direction of a force fA, G, i.e., from dA, G, = dA, L to dA, G ≠ dA, L. If, then, we provide some region X as a subgoal to reach food, the force fA, G will change its direction from dA, L to dA, X at the time of extinction, although in this case, of course, the locomotion along the path wA, X, G must be considerably more difficult or more painful than the locomotion along the path wA, L, G. Method. In this experiment, it was attempted to see. whether or not extinction is due to the changed direction a force fA, G, by providing a situation where two paths lead to the same goal from the same starting-point : wA, E, G and WA, F, Gin stylus maze (Figs. 1 and 2). In this situation dA, E, G ≠ dA, F, G because there exists no step wA, X such that wA, X ⊂ wA, E, G and wA, X ⊂ WA, F, G. After each preliminary trial along the both paths : three groups of human adult subjects learned to trace the maze along wA, E, G with as few errors as possible during the training period of 16 trials under three different condition : continuous (RR) and partial (RU and UR) reinforcement (Table 1). The maze was kept from subject's sight by a black cloth screen during the experimental period. Reinforcement (R in Table 1) was meant by a red light when the stylus was brought to A as a terminal point of wA, E, G. In the period of extinction procedure (U1, U2, ..........Un in Table 1), the resistance was measured by the number of trials along. wA, E, G before the subject substituted wA, F, G for wA, E, G. Results. Group RR showed much less resistance to extinction than the other groups. Between Groups RU and RS, however, no statistically significant difference was found (Table 3). Discussion. These facts mean that after continuous reinforcement fA, G is much more changeable in direction than after partial reinforcement, and that continuous or partial reinforcement is merely one of the factors which determine the changeability of the direction of a force fA, G : relative amount of efforts required to locomote along the two paths seems to be another factor.
In a previous report (this Journal, 1953, 23, 239-245), the author investigated the temporal factors of figural after-effects. The present study is concerned with the spatial factors of figural after-effects. The experimental variables were the diameter of the I-circle, the diameter of the T-circle, the distance between the centers of the I- and T-circles, and the width of the outline of the I-circle. The effects of the“differential experiment” method were also examined. Experimental conditions and procedure-The black outline circles on the sheets of white paper were used for the I- and T-figures (See Fig. 1). Immediately after each 15 second inspection of the I-figure, one of the T-sheets each of which consisted of a T-circle of the constant size and a comparison-circle of varied size was shown. These figures were presented at the distance of 3 meters from the subject. The brightness value of the the object surface was 2 millilamberts. The amount of apparent growth or shrinkage (over-estimation or under-estimation) of the size of the T-circle (as measured by its diameter) was determined by the method of complete series. The effect of diameter of the I-circle - In the first place, the author investigated the effect of diameter of the I-circle. The diameter of the I-circle was varied from 0.5cm to 12cm, while the diameter of the T-circle was fixed to 2cm or 4cm. The results show that the T-circle grows when it is larger than the I-circle and it shrinks when it is same as or smaller than the I-circle. The amount of shrinkage, in general, is greater than the amount of growth. The maximal growth occurs when the diameter ratio of the I-circle to the T-circle is 1:2, and the maximal shrinkage is obtained when this ratio is 2:1. These rules hold irrespectively of the size of the T-circle (Table 1, 2 ; Fig. 2, 3, 4). These facts suggest that the relative size of the I-circle with respect to the T-circle is a fundamental parameter of figural after-effects. The effect of diameter of the T-circle - The effect of diameter of the T-circles was studied next. The diameter of the T-circle was varied from 2cm to 8cm, and correspondingly the diameter of the I-circle was varied from 3 cm to 12cm in such a way that its relative size was kept always 1.5 times the size of the T-circle. The results indicate that, as the diameter of the T-circle increases, the amount of after -effect increases proportionally, While its relative amount was from 9 to 10 percent of the size of T-circle. (Table 3, Fig. 5). We may conclude from these results that the relative amount of after-effect is the essential measure of figural after-effects, and that it is determined directly as a function of the relative size of the I-circle. This conclusion is in line with that of the Ogasawara's study of the illusion of the concentric circles (this Journal, 1952, 22, 224-234) Retinal size vs. apparent size - Which is the determining parameter of the after-effect, the retinal size or the apparent size of the I-cirele? To answer this question, the author performed some experiments in which the I-figures were presented at the distance of 1.5 meters from the subject, and the T-figures at 3 meters. The results show that the growth-effect is caused only by the I-circle smaller than the T-circle in visual angle (Table 4 ; Fig. 6, 7). This fact suggests that the retinal size determined figural after-effects. However, the results as to the points of the maximal after-effects are not consistent. Some support the retinal size (Fig. 6), and the others the apparent size (Table 4, Fig. 7). The effect of distance between the centers of I- and T-circles - The after-effects were measured when the I-circles were placed eccentrically with the T-circles (Fig. 8). The diameter of the I-circle was fixed to 6cm and that of T-circle to 4cm, and the distance between their centers was varied from 0cm to 5cm.