The present study examined the persistence of polarization in self-generated attitude change, and explored the possibility of an additional polarization. In Experiment 1, a judgment about a traffic accident case was made, in which the defendant tended to appear guilty. Subjects in Thought condition then made a second judgment after thinking about the case for six minutes. In Experiment 2, two months later, the Thought subjects made judgments of the case again. The results were as follows: Judgments tended to polarize after the six-minute interval, and the effect persisted to the second experiment. However, a second polarization did not occur when another interval of six minutes to think about the case was provided. Some relationship between harshness of judgment and the number of reasons given for harsh judgment was found. The results were discussed in terms of both informational influence and social comparison.
Two studies were conducted to develop an instrument to assess individual differences in self-control in daily life. In Study 1, a 20-item Redressive-Reformative Self-Control Scale (RRS) was developed through a study involving 529 subjects. RRS consists of three sub-scales: “redressive self-control (RDSC)” which assesses a tendency of using a repertoire to resume normal functions that have been disrupted; “reformative self-control (RFSC)” which measures one's tendency to force oneself into a stressful situations for the sake of larger and more meaningful rewards in the future; and “external control”. The validity of two sub-scales (RDSC, RFSC) was confirmed in Study 2. Fifty-one subjects selected on the basis of RDSC and RFSC scores were interviewed about self-control in their everyday lives. The findings indicated the importance of a combination of redressive and reformative functions in successful self-control. It was suggested that these two functions be examined for the assessment of individual differences in self-control in daily life.
This study suggested the possibility of vocal learning in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) by examining populational differences in the calls of individuals from two populations, the Ohirayama and Yakushima. Genetic variability of these two populations is very small. Japanese monkeys emit a class of contact calls known as the “coo” call. The coo calls of 41 subjects (30 animals from the Ohirayama group and 11 animals from the Yakushima group) were analyzed spectrographically. There are significant differences between the two groups in four parameters of coo calls (minimum frequency, start frequency, duration to the maximum frequency, and total duration). Individuals in the Ohirayama group emit coo calls lower in frequency and longer in duration than those in the Yakushima group. The results suggest the possibility that the populational differences of coo calls are due to learning.
The main purpose of this study is to apply the “selective play paradigm” to explain how cooperation emerges in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas. A unique feature of the selective play paradigm is the option for not playing a PD game. For this purpose, a computer simulation of 100-actor groups was conducted. At the beginning of each replication, each simulated actor was randomly assigned to one of eleven levels of trust, which indicates the actor's estimate of the overall cooperation rate in the group. Each simulated actor, then, decided whether or not to interact with the previous partner based on the calculated expected gains from interacting with one of the other partners. Results of the simulation show that: (1) when substantial opportunity costs exist, having a high level of trust benefits the actor; (2) the above effect of trust depends on the actor's cooperativeness in PD games; (3) but does not depend on the overall cooperation rate in the group.
The author investigated the semantic processing advantage effect on facial recognition memory using two types of personality traits and two types of recognition tests. In Experiment 1, based on the personality impression ratings for smiling and neutral faces made by 40 subjects, four expression-independent (i.e., intelligent, reliable, determined, and ambitious) and four expression-dependent (i.e. extroverted, friendly, affectionate, and likeable) personality trait words were selected. In Experiment 2, two groups of 22 subjects (expression-dependent trait group and expression-independent trait group) were asked to rate 32 faces in terms of physical features or personality traits. This was followed by an unexpected yes-no recognition test in which identical pictures of the target faces or the same person's expression-changed faces were randomly presented with distractor faces. In identical-picture recognition condition, the semantic processing advantage emerged in both expression-dependent and expression-independent trait groups, whereas in expression-changed recognition condition the advantage appeared only in expression-independent trait group. It was discussed that the semantic-codes explanation would be plausible to explain the results obtained.
Twenty-four subjects experienced Cormack's illusion by rotating a disk using fingers of both hands with some pauses inserted during the rotation. Variables were durations for rotating a disk and pause. The illusion magnitude was measured just before each pause. The first experiment showed that the illusion magnitude decreased with increasing the pause. The second experiment showed that there was no difference in illusion magnitude between 5- and 20-second conditions of pause for 20-second rotating duration, although the magnitude was smaller for 20-second pause than that for 5-second pause under the condition of 5-second rotating duration. The experiment also showed that the final magnitude did not depend on whether the magnitude was measured every five seconds or only once at the end of the rotation. The results indicate that pause during rotation contributes to recovering from adaptation due to the rotation and that the effect of pause depends on the duration of rotation. The results also indicate that the increasing illusion magnitude with time is not an artifact due to the method of measuring the magnitude.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interpersonal relations on self-assertive strategy. One hundred and thirty-four preschool children, 70 boys and 64 girls between five and six years old, were asked a set of questions concerning how they would feel and behave when a peer provoked them. The peer intimacy and familiarity were systematically varied, and the main results were as follows: High-intimacy/high-familiarity group chose self-assertive strategies more frequently than High-intimacy/low-familiarity group, and Low-intimacy/low-familiarity group chose self-assertive strategies more often than Low-intimacy/high-familiarity group. It was also found that the self-assertive strategy they would choose depend on the intimacy and familiarity of the peer. Implications of the findings for social cognitive ability and self-regulation of preschool children were discussed.
A questionnaire was administered to college students and adult members of society to tap the structure and content of self that are characteristic of Japanese culture. The items measured some of the constructs that presumably characterize self in Japanese culture: namely, “amae” (Doi, 1971), “Japanese ego” (Minami, 1983), and “Kanjinshugi” (Hamaguchi, 1982). Factor analysis found eight factors, which were classified into two aspects: social and individualistic. These two aspects both included universal and culture-specific factors, and the universal factors appeared to correspond fairly well to Markus and Kitayama's (1991) “interdependent and independent construals of the self”. College students see more importance in the social aspects of the self than adults in both universal and culture-specific factors. On the individualistic side, however, they rated themselves as being less independent in the universal factors, but more exclusively egocentric in the other factors. The findings were discussed in terms of the development of self of young adults in Japan.
Free and cued recall of subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and verbally-presented sentences were tested with children of nine, 11, 13 years of age. In the SPTs condition, subjects performed mini-tasks (e.g., put on a hut) and memorized them. Results indicated that recall was higher for SPTs than for sentences, and that age affected the recall of sentences but not of SPTs. Beneficial effects of category cues were observed only for the 11- and 13-year-old age groups in the SPTs condition. These results were discussed in terms of the development of an organizational strategy.