The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between multiple role involvement and psychological well-being. Multiple roles were hypothesized to enhance people's well-being through a buffering effect and through resource appropriation, but were also hypothesized to decrease well-being through resource depletion. This study also examined self-complexity since previous work suggested that cognitive relatedness among roles would have a stronger impact on psychological well-being than mere number of roles. Survey data from 272 college students were used, and the results of multiple regression analysis suggested that having more independent roles activates resource utilization across different roles, which enhances psychological well-being.
This study was carried out to accomplish two purposes: one was to establish the scale to plot the behavior to cope with work-family conflict, and the other was to examine the process models of such coping behavior. Answers toward the anonymous questionnaire survey of dual-career couples, which covered 191 males and 211 females, were analyzed. Based on the result of a factor analysis, the coping behavior scale which is comprised of the following three factors was established: flexible role assignment between husband and wife, home role reduction, and home role fulfillment. It was found that the coping behaviors of flexible role assignment and home role fulfillment are provoked by work-family conflict, and exert influence on mental health and satisfaction levels with marriage and work. In addition, home role reduction has the buffering effect to lessen the influence of work-family conflict on satisfaction levels and mental health. Moreover, coping behavior process models show gender difference.
We examined the relationship between two properties of verbal probability (VP) expressions, “vagueness” and “directionality”, and investigated the effects of these properties on decision making. Vagueness is defined as its imprecise characteristic of uncertainty expressions in VP, whereas the directionality is communicative functions which cause one to focus on the occurrence or non-occurrence of the target event described by VP. Experiment 1 contrasted a disagreement in the literature as to whether one can predict the directionality from vagueness properties, and our analyses resolved the conflict by showing the ineffectiveness of the vagueness in predicting the directionality. Experiment 2 administered decision tasks involving VP and numerical translation tasks of VP. We discovered that the directionality affects only on decision tasks. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that the directionality is distinct characteristic from the vagueness of VP, and these properties affect decisions independently. Implications are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive process in selection of stress coping behavior. Subjects were 182 undergraduate students, who were asked to answer the questionnaire about their own stress experience and coping behavior. Factor analysis showed that the cognitive process in selection of coping behavior included four factors: “Expectation of positive outcome”, “Expectation of emotion regulation”, “Selection of habitual coping”, “Selection in the elimination”. Regression analysis showed that the score of “Expectation of positive outcome” was negatively correlated with stress response, the score of “Selection in the elimination” was positively correlated with stress response. Furthermore, interaction between the individual differences of cognitive process and coping behavior was found. People who engaged in emotion-focused coping style with elimination thinking felt more stressful than the others.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between intention to serve the same company for long years and job satisfaction in Japanese workers. Four hundred eighteen Japanese workers completed a questionnaire to assess intention to serve for long years and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured by two scales. One scale was consisted of the items which were deviced in the preliminary study concerning satisfaction with the company, and the other was consisted of the items based on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. A factor analysis on the former scale yielded four factors: fosterage by company, order in company, company's name recognition, and expansibility of company. A factor analysis on the latter yielded four factors: contribution and activity, recognition and benefits, supervision, and discretion on job. The multiple regression analysis showed that “expansibility of company” was the most important predictor of intention to serve for long years.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between image and familiarity that college students had about student counseling service and their willingness to make use of the service. A questionnaire was administered to 421 college students. Factor analysis of the image found two positive sides: helpfulness and support in crisis, and two negative ones: disadvantage and uneasiness. Men had an image that was higher on support in crisis and disadvantage than women. Women were more familiar with the service, but no sex difference was found in the willingness to visit it. First-year students were lower in terms of their familiarity, but no image differences were found among students of different years. Regression analysis of the willingness indicated that different predictors became significant, depending on the sex and year of the respondents. It was suggested that different information about counseling service should be disseminated, so as to maximize the willingness, depending on the sex and year of the students.
The ideal free distribution (IFD) theory describes how animals living in the wild distribute themselves between two different resource sites. The IFD theory predicts that the ratio of animals in the two resource sites is equal to the ratio of resources available in those sites. The present study investigated the effects of absolute reinforcer magnitude and group size on the distribution of humans between two resource sites. Two groups of undergraduate students (N=10 and N=20) chose blue or red cards to earn points. The ratio of points assigned to each color varied from 1:1 to 4:1 across five conditions. In each condition, absolute reinforcer magnitude was varied. The generalized ideal free distribution equation was fit to the data obtained under the different magnitude and group size conditions. These results suggest that larger absolute reinforcer magnitude and smaller group size produce higher sensitivity to resource distribution.
This study investigated what dimensions young children's trait concepts have for real peers at their nursery school. Teachers of nursery school rated children's personality characteristics in terms of each dimension of the Big Five, and children were selected who showed different behavioral characteristics in those the five dimensions. Five- and six-year-old children (26 participants: 14 boys and 12 girls) evaluated those selected peers' personality. It was found that young children made different evaluations between extroversion and the other four traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and intellect), and between agreeableness and intellect. The results suggested that young children's trait concepts have a dimension of extroversion, in addition to a general dimension of goodness-badness.