The relationship between coping styles and stress responses of teachers was examined in an experiment. With the scores of Manifest Anxiety and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales, teacher-participants were classified into four groups of six each; repressor, sensitizer, low-anxious, and defensive-anxious. Then, they performed a word-association task, and were individually interviewed by a woman they met for first time. Intermittently during the sessions, the participant rated own state anxiety; heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored; and reaction time and successful recall rate on the task were recorded. Results were as follows: Repressors showed high state anxiety and a significantly greater increase in HR, but a smaller increase in SCL than the others. In contrast, sensitizers showed low state anxiety and a significantly greater increase in SCL. The low-anxious showed high state anxiety at the beginning which decreased immediately, and remained at an intermediate and steady physiological arousal level, except SCL. The defensive-anxious showed low state anxiety and low HR. On the whole, it was suggested that coping styles could predict stress responses.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale measuring clinical effectiveness of autogenic training. In Study 1, 167 undergraduates completed a survey of items concerning physical and mental states, which were thought to vary in the course of autogenic training. With item and factor analyses, 20 items were selected, and the resulting scale (ATCES) had high discrimination and clear factor structure. In Study 2, reliability and concurrent and clinical validity of the scale were examined with three groups of respondents: 85 mentally healthy, 31 control, 13 clinical persons. The scale showed a high test-retest correlation (r=.83) and α coefficient (α=.86). ATCES had a Pearson correlation coefficient of r =.56 with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and r=.73 with trait anxiety (STAI-T). And ATCES successfully discriminated the mentally healthy and clinical groups in terms of clinical effectiveness. These results demonstrated high reliability and sufficient concurrent and clinical validity of the new scale.
The present study reports coping strategies in ‘agari’ eliciting situations. ‘Agari’ is a Japanese noun (the verb form is ‘agaru’), referring to broad experiences including ‘stage-fright’, ‘choking under pressure’ and ‘social anxiety’. Based upon the self-reports of 426 subjects, a 84-item questionnaire on the coping strategies for ‘agari’ was constructed. Another 361 subjects completed the questionnaire, and a factor analysis of their responses revealed seven primary factors: “autosuggestion”, “physical exercise”, “image”, “avoidance”, “positive thinking”, “easygoing tolerance”, and “unrelated behavior”. Furthermore, a higher-order factor analysis was carried out and revealed that “positive-negative” and “physical-cognitive” higher-order factors explained seven primary factors. Next, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed and the results divided twelve ‘agari’ situations into three clusters of situations: “competition”, “presentaion requiring preparation”, and “impromptu presentation”. The “physical exercise” strategies were used particularly in “competition” clusters. The other clusters were divided in the appraisals of whether they could prepare or not. It is suggested that the coping strategies for ‘agari’ depend upon the nature of ‘agari’ eliciting situations.
Several previous studies on the misleading information effect employed priming tasks to examine the presence/absence of original information. Given hyperspecificity of priming, however, it is questionable whether or not their priming tasks were sensitive enough to detect original information because their stimuli were perceptually different from the slides in the study phase. In the priming task of this research, we used slides whose perceptual properties were equivalent to those of the studied ones. In addition, we also conducted a yes-no recognition task using the same slides so that the results of these two tasks could be directly compared. The misleading information effect was replicated in the recognition task. Nevertheless, participants correctly recognized the original slides, whereas no priming effect was observed for those slides. These results suggest that although the original information survives the misleading information effect, its representation is modified so that only the yes-no recognition task, not the priming task, has access to it.
Statistical efficiency approach is used in order to investigate sampling properties of both binocular disparity and motion parallax processes in depth slant perception and to examine the independent decisions model (Mulligan & Shaw, 1980) consisting of these processes. We carried out two experiments in which each cue was displayed solely (i.e., single condition) and both cues were displayed simultaneously (i.e., multiple condition). A two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task was used under the situation where a Gaussian noise was added to the stimulus value of depth slant. Statistical efficiencies were calculated in each experiment. The results showed that sampling size from binocular disparity was at least comparable or larger by a factor of 2.5-3.5 with that from motion parallax and that efficiencies of the multiple condition considerably exceeded those of the single condition. This suggests invalidity of the independent decisions model.
Effects of focus on a target word during performance of the reading span test (RST) were investigated. A focus word in the sentence was defined as the most critical word with a core meaning to integrate the sentence. Two kinds of RST were compared. One was focus-RST (F-RST) in which the target word to be maintained was a focus word of the sentence. The other was a non-focus-RST (NF-RST) in which the target word was not a focus word of the sentence, although the sentence did contain a focus word. Results showed that RST scores were found to be higher for F-RST than for NF-RST. Moreover, the effect of focus was proved to be dominant for low span subjects. Intrusion errors also increased in NF-RST. Sentence length effect, however, was not found. The results showed that low span subjects had severe deficits in making and updating the focus, which is critical for sentence comprehension.
The continuous recognition paradigm was employed to examine age-related performance deficit in short-term and long-term memory. Three age groups of people: young, young-old, and old-old, participated in the study, which used words of high and intermediate familiarity. With intervals used as criteria for separation of short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) memory, hit rate and reaction time (RT) were computed separately. Although not significantly different in STM, hit rate in LTM decreased as the participant got older. No difference in RT for young-old and old-old groups was found for STM and LTM of high familiarity words, but the difference was significant for LTM of intermediate familiarity. RT was longer for intermediate than high familiarity words for both young-old and old-old groups in LTM, and only for old-old group in STM. These results indicated that although age differences in memory performance were not very large, different influence of aging on encoding, storage, and retrieval processes could be inferred.
In this experiment, 36 participants engaged in one of three span tasks; digit span, body movement span, or hand movement span task, in which they were asked to remember visually presented sequences of digits, whole body movement patterns, or hand movement patterns, respectively. As in a standard memory span procedure, the items within each sequence were recalled in order. Participants were presented with increasingly longer sequences of the items, and span score was defined as the number of items in the longest sequence a participant could recall perfectly. The span tasks were tested under three concurrent task conditions; no concurrent task control, concurrent articulation task, and concurrent body-related movement task. The concurrent movement task interfered with performance on both body movement and hand movement span tasks, but not on the digit span task, while the concurrent articulation task interfered with performance on all of the three span tasks. It is suggested that memory for movement patterns, which is involved in the body and band movement spans, would be mediated by a common motor-processing system.
This study examined the effect of neighborhood size on the recognition of Japanese katakana words. Neighbors of a given katakana word were defined in two ways; kana-level neighbor is a katakana word that can be constructed by changing one letter of the target word preserving the other letter positions, and phoneme-level neighbor is a katakana word that can be created by changing one phoneme (consonant or vowel) preserving the other phoneme positions of the target. In Experiment 1, 30 university students participated in a lexical decision task and numbers of kana-level neighbor were manipulated. The result showed that the number of kana-level neighbor had an inhibitory effect on lexical decision of low familiarity katakana words. In Experiment 2, 30 university students participated in a lexical decision task and numbers of phoneme-level neighbor were manipulated. The result showed that the number of phoneme-level neighbor had no effect on lexical decision of katakana words. These results suggest that neighbors affect each other on their orthographic representation in the recognition of low familiarity Japanese katakana words.
This study examined general public's trust in national government and electric power companies in terms of nuclear power policies, and that in the government in terms of defense policies. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 560 Kobe citizens, and a total of 409 complete it. Covariance structure analysis was performed to test hypotheses of the present study. Results suggested that the more demanding of the government and corporations, the lower the person's trust. How well the person understood the difficulty of the work involved hardly affected his/her demand and trust in all three actors of the two issues. Results also indicated that the person who perceived the government to be under pressure to appear trustworthy tended to have lower trust in them, that Yamagishi's general trust (1998) did not influence the trust in the cases, and that awareness of popular political empowerment had a negative impact on the trust in the government.
Connectionist modeling is one approach to understanding human intelligence using simulated networks of neuron-like processing units. In this article, we report on recent progress in connectionist models that simulate empirical data of higher-level cognitive processes, these being memory, learning, language, thinking, cognitive development, and social cognition. We also review and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these connectionist models. The computational framework of connectionist modeling has the potential to integrate specialized psychological findings of different areas using the same architectures and local functions of units and connections, inspired from neuroscience. In particular, the problems of dealing with structured information in distributed form, and doing tasks that require variable binding in connectionist networks are discussed from several different perspectives. As one possible solution to treat systematic mental representations properly, the symbolic connectionist model, which is a hybrid approach using symbolic representations and connectionist architectures, is explained. We argue that connectionist computer simulation offers significant benefits for today's psychological researches, and that connectionist modeling is likely to have an imaortant influence on future studies.