This study examined the stress-buffering effects of sense making among parents of children with developmental disorders. A model assuming that social support is related to sense making and that coping strategy mediates sense making and stress response was examined via a questionnaire survey of mothers of children with developmental disorders (N = 245). The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggested the following: (a) the stress-buffering effects of sense making were mediated through an emotional approach coping strategy and sense making was positively related to stress response mediated through an active coping strategy; (b) seeking a meaning directly increased one’s stress response, which was indirectly mediated by an avoidant coping strategy; and (c) the effects of social support on sense making and coping strategy, as well as stress response, varied with the kind of social resources from whom mothers anticipated support. These results suggest that sense making affects stress response in mothers of children with developmental disorders through the social support they anticipate and the coping strategies they adopt.
This study used daily diary methods to investigate if fear of interpersonal stress in daily affect could be explained by coping strategies, and if daily affect and coping would vary randomly across personality traits. Every day for one week, 103 undergraduates recorded their daily events, perceived interpersonal stress, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies, positive events, and positive and negative affect twice a day. A hierarchical linear model and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to examine the relationships between variables. Results suggest that problem-focused coping was associated with within-level maladjustment, while positive reappraisal was associated with within-level adjustment. In addition, neuroticism appeared to moderate the relationship between coping and daily affect. Furthermore, there is evidence that higher fear of interpersonal stress predicts greater active coping, and positive affect.
This study investigated the effects of self-anger on rumination and mental health (depression and anxiety). In study 1, a scale to measure self-anger was developed by the review of previous studies and survey interviews. Exploratory factor analysis identified one factor of self-anger. The reliability and validity of the scale were confirmed by internal consistency measures and correlations with other anger-related scales. In study 2, which used the self-anger scale developed in study 1, undergraduate and graduate students completed a set of scales to measure self-anger, rumination, depression, anxiety, and five-factor personality traits. The results of mediation analysis indicated that self-anger effects depression and anxiety directly or through mediating rumination excluding the effect of sex and neuroticism. Finally, the possibility that self-anger management leads to the reduction of rumination and improvement of mental health was discussed.
In this study, we developed a Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Educators Survey (MBI-ES). We also examined the reliability and validity of the scale, based on data from Japanese schoolteachers. Because some items related to depersonalization showed a floor effect, the reliability of the MBI-ES was evaluated using item response theory (IRT), which can evaluate the difficulty of the items. The IRT analysis showed that scores of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment had high reliabilities among the wide range of distribution of the latent scores around the means. However, the reliability of the depersonalization items was estimated to be moderate when it was implemented among highly depersonalized teachers, whereas the reliability was lower for relatively healthy teachers. Correlations with the General Health Questionnaire, frequency of emotional labor, and job satisfaction were mostly consistent with previous research and the current theory of burnout, supporting the high validity of the Japanese version of the MBI-ES.
Our goal in this study was to examine whether controlled pretense signal presentation by an adult promoted pretend play behavior in toddlers. Seventy-two Japanese toddlers (24 toddlers in the 18-month-old group, 24 toddlers in the 24-month-old group, and 24 toddlers in the 30-month-old group) participated in one of two experimental conditions: signal and signal-less. In the signal condition, the experimenter presented children with pretend play behaviors (eating, drinking, pouring, and wiping) accompanied by a smile, speech including sound effects, and gazing. In the signal-less condition, the experimenter presented only pretend play behavior with a neutral facial expression without speech or gazing. For each child, we coded the number of pretend play behaviors and recorded the number of seconds the toddler engaged in the behavior. Results indicated that 18- and 24-month-old toddlers’ pretend play behavior lasted longer in the signal condition than it did in the signal-less condition. However, the 30-month-old toddlers showed no difference in pretend play behaviors between the signal conditions. In sum, adults’ pretense signals promoted pretend play behavior only in 18- and 24-month-olds, and not in 30-month-olds.
The cognitive function to project oneself into the specific past or future is labeled mental time travel (MTT). MTT to the past is considered “episodic memory” and the future is termed “episodic future thinking”. Remembering the past and imaging the future during MTT both draw on information stored in episodic memory: a process that enables integration of episodic information into a coherent event representation. Recent studies suggested that episodic information in past/future event representations varies with temporal distance from the present to the event. However, it is unclear whether the influence on temporal distance is actually caused by the function of episodic memory retrieval. The present study investigated the relationship between episodic memory and temporal concepts with a lexical decision task. The results indicate that remembering the past activated temporal concepts of the near future more than that of the far future. This finding suggests that the rich information derived from episodic memory modulates the subjective sense of time in episodic future thinking.
Previous studies have shown that two types of private self-consciousness result in opposing effects on depression; one of which is self-rumination, which leads to maladaptive effect, and the other is self-reflection, which leads to an adaptive effect. Although a number of studies have examined the mechanism of the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, only a few studies have examined the mechanism of the adaptive effect of self-reflection. The present study examined the process of how self-reflection affected depression adaptively. Based on the previous findings, we proposed a hypothetical model assuming that hardiness acts as a mediator of self-reflection. To test the validity of the model, structural equation modeling analysis was performed with the cross-sectional data of 155 undergraduate students. The results suggest that the hypothetical model is valid. According to the present results and previous findings, it is suggested that self-reflection is associated with low levels of depression and mediated by “rich commitment”, one component of hardiness.
This study explores the psychological effects that Japanese people experience when consuming their “Shikohin”, such as alcohol, tea, coffee, and tobacco. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 542 people, from 20-to 69-year-old, who regularly consumed any one of “Shikohin” in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba. The participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning the consumption patterns of their “Shikohin” and the psychological effects that they experienced in taking in their “Shikohin”. Results obtained using the K-J methods showed three common psychological effects in each “Shikohin”. These effects included an increase in relaxation response, the promotion of social relationships, and an increase in positive mood. Our findings suggest that Japanese people may get some common effects through consumption of different “Shikohin”.
The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs. sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test–retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (p = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a simplified scale to assess loneliness in children. Participants were 646 elementary school students (335 boys and 311 girls) from 4th to 6th grade and 24 homeroom teachers who identified lonely children within the participants of their classes. The student participants completed the Five-item Loneliness Scale for Children (Five-LSC) and other scales measuring social skills, social competence, and withdrawal to confirm the validity of the Five-LSC. The results showed that the Five-LSC was both reliable and valid. In addition, there were no grade or sex differences in loneliness. Future research using the Five-LSC was discussed.