The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect on the selective reaction time (RT) of the anxiety, which was experimentally controlled by means of an electric shock (ES). The present research included four experiments with essentially the same procedures, except that the numbers of reinforcements varied with the different experiments. Each experiment consisted of three sessions, which were spaced 5min apart. In the first session (habituation), three light stimuli (red, blue and yellow) used as a RT signal were presented randomly 10 presentations per stimulus, with a 30- to 60-second interval between the stimuli. Ss were instructed to respond to each signal as rapidly as possible. The RT was measured by the pressing of a key paired in position with each signal. The habituation period served to make comparison of the effects of the subsequent sessions. In the second session (classical aversive discriminative conditioning), the three light stimuli were presented at random for 20, 5, 10 and 20 presentations per stimuli in Exp. I, Exp. II, Exp. III and Exp. IV respectively. Although the RT was measured in the same way as in habituation treatment, the red signal alone was reinforced by pairing it with the unavoidable and unescapable strong ES, which was delivered immediately after the response to the red signal. But no ES was given to any presentations of RT signals in Exp. I. This session can be regarded as a non-specific anxiety inducing situation. The third session (extinction) replicated the same procedure as the first session, that is, each stimulus was no longer followed by ES. Here, the specific effects caused by the classical aversive discriminative conditioning should distinguish themselves from the non-specific effect of the anxiety inducing situation in the second period. Further, GSR was continuously recorded during three sessions in each experiment. The main results obtained were as follows: (1) The most striking appearances of spontaneous GSRs were demonstrated during ITI in the conditioning session of each experiment except for Exp. I. This result could be considered to be evidence that this session became a non-specific anxiety inducing situation. (2) Two opposing patterns of change in the RT to CS+ and CS- were observed in this anxiety situation, that is, a marked prolongation of the RT to CS- was demonstrated throughout the second session; on the contrary, the RT to CS+ became even shorter at least in early trials of the second session than in the first session. (3) According to the introspective reports after the experiment, Ss focused attention on the red signal (CS+) during conditioning. Therefore it appears that two reverse tendencies on RT were due to a difference in selectivity between CS+ and CS-. (4) But with reference to CS+, its RT became gradually longer as conditioning trials progressed. This gradual lengthening of the RT should be considered to reflect the progressive development of the conditioned anxiety elicited by CS+. (5) In the third session (extinction), the RT to CS+ was also markedly lengthened as it was later in the course of conditioning session, whereas the RT to CS- was shorter in early trials of this session than the base-line level of the first session. It is apparent that CS- came to acquire the capacity of behavioral control, just as CS+ did, as a result of the discriminative learning. But both the excitatory and the inhibitory effects elicited by CS+ and CS- respectively decreased gradually during extinction session. (6) The aboved-mentioned changes in the RT to CS+ were scarcely observed in Exp. II, on the contrary, the evoked GSR to CS+ increased in amplitude most markedly in Exp. II. (7) The difference between effects of the
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between political knowledge and political attitudes, which are the principal components of political orientation. The questionnaire was administered to 543 male and female students in Nagano prefecture, ranging in age from the third year of junior high school to the senior year of college (113 third year junior high school students; 204 senior high school students, of whom 80, 87, and 37 were first, second and third year students, respectively; 226 college students, of whom 100, 103, 13 and 10 were freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors in that order). The questionnaire contained 32 items which were concerned with political knowledge and 40 items which were concerned with political attitudes. Five knowledge scales were construtted from the 32 items regarding political knowledge: they were 1) US. Japan Security Pact-Japanese Self Defense Army scale, 2) Japanese Constitution-Labor Movement-Okinawa Problem scale, 3) Japanese Politics-Economics-Diplomacy scale, 4) US Politics -Economics scale and 5) US Military Affairs-Diplomacy scale. From the 42 items regarding political attitude, four attitude scales were constructed: they were 1) US. Japan Security Pact-Japanese Self Defense Army-Japanese Militarism scale, 2) US Politics-Economics-Diplomacy-Military Affairs scale, 3) Japanese Politics-Economics-Diplomacy scale and 4) Okinawa Problem-Peace Movement scale. These nine scales were analyzed using principal factor analysis. The solution was varimax-rotated with two factors. It was found that the first factor was the knowledge factor (have (+) not have (-)) and the second factor was the attitude factor (progressive (+) conservative (-)). From these two factors, the means were calculated for each year and were plotted on two-dimensional plane; the abscissa for political knowledge, the ordinate for political attitude. The resulting curve was a J-shaped one. The third year students of junior high school had their position on the left end of the J-shaped curve. At this stage of development, the political knowledge was low and the political attitude was not well structured yet. For the second year students of high school, their mean political attitude score inclined to the conservative side, in spite of their increased political knowledge. Hereafter, both political knowledge and political attitudes changed rapidly from the stage of little-knowledge and conservative to one of greater-knowledge and radicalism in a nearly linear relationship. At the junior and senior year of college, both the degree of political knowledge and of progressivism reverted to levels between those of freshmen and sophomores. Next, after removing statistically the effect of developmental difference and making the entire sample homogeneous, factor analysis was carried out again. The result was not substantially different from that of the above analysis; that is, both the political knowledge factor and the political attitude factor were extracted. From these results it was concluded that the factor structure of political orientation was not affected by the developmental stages of the individual.
It is very significant to investigate the law of perception concerning the level-fluctuating noises when we consider that the levels of sounds which surround us are fluctuating at any moment. In our previous paper (Namba, et al., 1971) the loudness of intermittent noises whose levels are fluctuating (abbreviated as ‘level-fluctuating noises’) was investigated by matching it with that of level-fixed noises. And the result showed that the loudness of level-fluctuating noises changed corresponding with the mean, L or Lm, of physical intensity of level-fluctuating noises. L and Lm were calculated as follows: Lm=1/nnΣi=1Xi=1/n[nΣi=1(10logIi/I0)] L=10lognΣi=1Ii/I0-10logn Where Xi is the sound pressure level of each noise which constitutes the level-fluctuating noise. I0 is the reference level (0.0002μMbar), Ii is the value of intensity of each noise and n is the number of constituent noises. In the present experiments we investigated the two problems which remained unsolved: (1) which mean, L or Lm, is more suitable for expressing the loudness of level-fluctuating noises? And (2) what effects does the length of on-time and off-time of intermittent noises have on the loudness of level-fluctuating noises? The method and the apparatus used in the present experiments were just the same as in our previous experiments except that two electronic switches were added in order to control on-time and off-time in Exp. II and III. Exp. I was designed to investigate which of the two means, L and Lm is more fitting. Both noises, level-fluctuating and level-fixed, were composed of 50 constituent noises, on-time and off-time of which were 72msec and 34msec respectively. The levels of constituent noises of level-fluctuating noises were 66, 68, 70, 72 and 74dB SPL in series 1, 66, 68, 70, 72 and 78dB SPL in series 2, 66, 68, 70, 72 and 82dB SPL in series 3, 66, 68, 70, 72 and 86dB SPL in series 4, and 66, 68, 70, 72 and 90dB SPL in series 5. In other words 4 kinds of stimuli in each series were kept at the same level and only the most intense stimulus was systematically changed with the corresponding change of L and Lm. The result showed that the loudness increased in accordance with the change of L and the discrepancy from Lm, was clear. Exp. II and III were conducted in order to investigate the effect of on-time and off-time. In Exp. II the levels of constituent noises were 62, 66, 70, 74 and 78dB SPL, and both on-time and off-time were 50, 100, 200 or 500msec. In Exp. III, for the purpose of the more precise investigation of the effect of the duration, the levels of constituent noises were fixed at 70dB SPL and only on-time and off-time were changed just in the same way as in Exp. II. The results of Exp. II and III showed that the loudness increased as the increase of total on-time during 5sec presentation of intermittent noises and that the loudness was again in good agreement with L when it was calculated as the ratio of total on-time during 5sec. This means that the effect of duration is nothing but the effect of the amount of energy the noise has. Therefore, it may be concluded from these results that the loudness of level-fluctuating noises is expressed by L. There still remain several problems such as the effect of rise and fall time, etc, which must be solved before establishing the definite model.
The possibility of describing the orthogonal factor rotation in terms of statistical moment based on squared factor loadings is discussed with the purpose of attaining simple structure type of answers and level contributions of rotated factors. In the first place, a short historical review of the analytical rotation approach based on squared factor loadings is presented and the characteristics of some methods of current use including the normal varimax, parsimax, and factor parsimony criteria are investigated. And it is shown mathematically that both the parsimax -which is advocated to be most recommendable when the definite number of factors is defined before rotation- and the factor parsimony criteria may have some inherent difficulties because of which they produce answers with high complexities. The empirical examples are presented in Table 1. Two kinds of generalized moments based on squared factor loadings are introduced. They are nΣj=1mΣi=1(aji2-1/mmΣi=1aji2)K (1) and mΣi=1nΣj=1(aji2-1/nnΣj=1aji2)K (2) where i (=1, 2, ……, m), j (=1, 2, ……, n), aji, and K refer to factor, test, rotated factor loadings, and positive integer except unity respectively, and more attention is paid on the formula (2) which is herein called the generalized moment with respect to factor column and its mathematical aspects are discussed. In the formula (2) with the values of 2 and 3 for K, the rotational angles in the single plane procedure can be obtained easily. The former case includes both the quartimax and the varimax criteria and the latter both the communality weighted quartimax and the skewmax ones which are herein developed. The normal skewmax criterion is shown to be most recommendable from the practical point of view and the possibility of improving the normal varimax solution is suggested with a numerical example of Table 2, in that the former criterion attains both simple structure type of answers and level contributions of factors more satisfactorily than the latter does. The formula for rotation angle is to be θ=1/4arctan2nΣj=1(B+C)(B-C)D/nΣj=1(B+C)((B-C)-D2) (3) where B=aj12-1/nnΣj=1aj12, C=aj22-1/nnΣj=1aj22, and D=2 (aj1aj2-1/nnΣj=1aj1aj2) Related miscellaneous topics are discussed and some needs for further studies are suggested from another line of approach.