The purpose of this research is to provide a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model for a latent factor. Typical psychological studies measure mental states with questionnaires and analyze the variance of the measures into the portions attributable to various sources. This type of research, when conducted under regular ANOVA designs, uses total score as the dependent measures. However, this method is based on the unrealistic presumption that every item on the questionnaire has the same factor loading on the attribute being measured. In this research, we incorporated factor analysis model, and used a latent factor instead of total score as the dependent measure, thereby applying ANOVA under a more realistic assumption. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to express statistical models. This paper also examined a relation between music and mood, which is a quite popular area of research in psychology of music. To study the possible effects of tonality and key-signature on mood, music was chosen to represent tonality and key-signature conditions.
Two experiments examined whether or not contextual variation during encoding of a list enhances decontextualization of episodic memory of the list. A total of 86 undergraduates incidentally encoded a list of 24 nouns twice under the same (same-context repetition condition) or different (different-context repetition condition) contexts with a one-week inter-encoding interval. One week after the second encoding of the list, the undergraduates were asked to free recall the list under the third neutral context. Context was manipulated by the combination of three contextual elements: physical features of environment, types of encoding tasks, and social factors. Experiment 1 revealed superiority of same-to different-context repetition condition, whereas the preceding studies manipulating only environmental features found superiority of different-to same-context repetition condition. Experiment 2, in which participants were explicitly instructed that the list used in the first and the second encoding sessions were identical, replicated the findings of Experiment 1. The present findings suggest that contextual variation between episodes does not enhance decontextualization of episodic memory.
It is a fundamental question whether facial expressions are processed categorically or continuously in the multidimensional space. According to Young, Rowland, Calder, Etcoff, Seth, and Perrett (1997), two-dimensional model predicts that: (i) transitions between expressions should be continuous, and (ii) at least some transitions between expressions should pass through a central neutral region or a region corresponding to a third emotion. We investigated this issue using schematic facial expressions which were used by Yamada (1993). We measured the difference between the neutral and each of six facial stimuli with basic expressions and created opposite faces with reference to the neutral face (100% (original, e.g. happy), 50%, 0% (neutral), -50%, -100% (opposite, e.g. unhappy), for each expression). Subjects rated the affective value of these stimuli. The configuration of four emotional stimuli showed that each stimulus (100%) passed through the neutral face and reached the opposite face (-100%) except for the disgust and fear. This result supports, at least partially, the two-dimensional model of face perception.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the asymmetric effect of alterations (i.e., addition versus deletion) on recognition memory. In Experiment 1, a scale for measuring the FSS (Feeling of Something Strange) was developed (n=50) using added or deleted pictures from previous research (e.g., Uchino, Hakoda, & Yamada, 2000). Result showed that altered pictures were evaluated by “pleasant” and “odd” factors. In Experiment 2, 80 participants observed 20 pictures, and then they answered whether each test picture was altered or not. Test pictures varied in significance of the objects added or deleted on a scene. Additions were detected more easily than deletions only when added object was unexpected or unusual, while deleted object was essential to a scene (TD: typicality-disrupted condition). Then, 60 participants rated the FSS scale for test pictures. Ratings of odd factor for added pictures were higher than deleted pictures presented in the TD condition. These results suggest that superiority of addition over deletion might be due to their different effect on FSS.
Several studies have identified the importance of holistic information in face recognition. However, only few studies have investigated how it is influenced by changes of configuration. In Experiment 1, four faces were created by changing the distance between the eyes and the mouth. Participants evaluated the size of the face on three dimensions—face length, face width and face range—by using magnitude estimation. Results indicated that increasing the distance between the eyes and the mouth increased the estimated length and range of faces. In Experiment 2, the distance between the eyes was manipulated in a way similar to Experiment 1. Results indicated that increasing the distance between the eyes increased the estimated width and the range of the face. The direction of face presentation (normal or inverted) only affected width estimation in Experiment 1. It is concluded that facial perception is affected by configural information of features. These results are discussed regarding configural information and inversion effects.
When we look at a flight of level stairs where its longitudinal section obliquely intersected the direction of treads, we perceive the stairs to be tilted laterally. We call this phenomenon a “skewed staircase illusion (SSI).” To investigate features of the SSI, using miniatures of skewed stairs or of laterally sloped planes, we measured their apparent lateral tilts. Main findings were: 1) the stairs were perceived to be less tilted than the laterally sloped planes, 2) the stairs of 32 steps were perceived to be more tilted than those of five steps, 3) the stairs were perceived to be more tilted when we looked them down from the top than when we looked them up from the base, and 4) the apparent tilt of the skewed stairs or laterally sloped planes had a positive correlation with cross-component of slope. We proposed that the SSI is affected by an apparent plane generated by perceptual connection of the treads of stairs.
Targets are identified or detected more accurately when they are presented before or during a response which does not share the same feature with the target, compared with when the response does share the same feature (Müsseler & Hommel, 1997a, 1997b, blindness to response-compatible stimuli). We investigated the effect of spatial information in the blindness effect. Experiment 1 showed that the blindness effect also occurred when the task was to detect the location of stimuli as well as to identify the orientation of an arrow. Experiment 2 showed that when the location of stimuli and response were compatible, the blind effect was reduced although the location was perfectly task-irrelevant. It was suggested that spatial information had a critical role in the blindness effect from action to perception, similar to the case of stimulus-response compatibility where the stimuli affected the response.
This study investigated the individual differences of lightness filling-in on illusory contour figures with regard to the attention to figures; namely, to which information of hierarchical figures, the global information or the local information, subjects tended to allocate their attention. Subjects participated in a preliminary experiment to divide into a global group and a local group. The global group consisted of ten subjects who had a tendency to allocate their attention to the global configuration of hierarchical figures and the local group consisted of ten subjects who had a tendency to allocate their attention to the form of local elements of hierarchical figures. Both groups observed the Kanizsa squares and judged the lightness of the test field. The results showed that the local group significantly filled in greater lightness in the test field than the global group did. It is suggested that how subjects allocate attention to figures is one factor in individual differences of lightness filling-in and that lightness filling-in depends on top-down processing.
Recent studies have shown that a social dilemma (SD) may be resolved when people base their behavior in it on the outcome in another exchange domain (e. g., Milinski, Semmann, & Krambeck, 2002). Since people often engage simultaneously in different social exchanges with the same partner, such behavioral linkage, making behavior contingent upon outcome, across different exchange domains may provide an ecologically feasible solution to a SD. In this study, a further analysis of the theoretical statement concerning the positive effect of behavioral linkage was made, and it was argued that such linkage would resolve a SD, since another exchange relationship could provide a means to administer selective incentives. An experiment with 120 participants was conducted to test the hypotheses that people would adjust their behavior in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game depending on their partner's behavior and outcome in another SD, and such behavioral linkage would promote cooperation in the SD. Results of the experiment supported the hypotheses.
Persons in negative moods often recall their positive experiences to alleviate their affective states. This study investigated the nature of autobiographical memories that facilitate improvement of negative moods. More specifically, it examined the relations between participants' subjective moods and the three natures of recalled memories (the current positivity, the past positivity, and the importance). After 67 participants were induced either negative or neutral moods, they were asked to recall five positive experiences and to rate their affective states. Results indicated that the more important memories participants recalled, the more positive moods they reported after recollection, and that these effects of the importance of autobiographical memories were observed in both negative and neutral moods. In contrast, neither the current positivity of memories nor the past positivity of memories significantly influenced participant's moods in both negative and neutral moods. The mechanism by which the importance of autobiographical memory affects moods was discussed.