This experimental study investigated how leader-member exchange (LMX) and positive feedback pertinent to the goal is related to subordinates' responsibility, assessment of their supervisors, and feeling of being implicitly scolded, to elaborate and confirm the findings of Bezuijen et al. (2010). We hypothesized that positive feedback pertinent to the goal would be more effective compared to unrelated feedback. Secondly, we hypothesized that this effect would be moderated by the quality of LMX. Undergraduate students (29 male, 51 female; 20.4±.63 yrs) participated as subordinates in an experiment consisting of two sessions. The results supported our hypotheses. We found that the positive feedback pertinent to the goal led to increased levels of responsibility. This effect was greater under high-quality LMX conditions, but was inhibited under low-quality LMX conditions. In the high-quality LMX condition, subordinates who did not get any feedback decreased their responsibility, gave lower supervisor assessment ratings, and felt more strongly scolded than under conditions where they received feedback. We discussed the importance of the combination of the quality of the relationship and positive feedback related to the goal, and provided directions for future research.
We examined whether people can retain an implicit memory for unfamiliar faces over several weeks by using an indirect recognition procedure (Terasawa & Ohta, 1993). The procedure was composed of two sessions with a long-term interval. Two experiments using different intervals ─ 19 days (Experiment 1) and 7 weeks (Experiment 2) ─ were conducted. In each session, participants were presented with line drawings of faces and were asked to rate their preferences. The number of presentations varied for each condition in the first session. Participants were also asked to perform an unexpected recognition test for the faces presented after the rating task in the second session. Results from both experiments showed that the rates of correct and false recognition of faces increased significantly with the number of presentations in the first session. The findings indicate that long-lasting implicit memory can be formed for unfamiliar faces by incidental learning.
To investigate binocular single vision, we examined monocular contrast sensitivity during binocular fixation by changing the intervals between the beginning of fixation and a probe stimulus, within 10 seconds. Monocular contrast sensitivities were quite stable within 1s of the interval delay in both eyes, but they were reduced in either eye if the interval delay was more than 1s (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, a similar stimulus was monocularly presented. In this case, decline of contrast sensitivity was not observed in either eye. In Experiment 3, when the stimulus was interrupted briefly before the probe presentation, the contrast sensitivity was recovered. These results suggest that after prolonged viewing the binocular system does not sustain either eye sensitivity equally unless there is interruption of the binocular stimulation.
This study examined changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students. Based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), we focused on changes in autonomous and controlled motivation. In Study 1, we examined inter-individual changes in academic motivation among 5th to 9th grade students (N=1 572) through a cross-sectional study. In Study 2, we examined intra-individual changes in academic motivation among students (N=128) who were in transition from elementary to junior high school through a longitudinal study. All participants completed the Academic Motivation Scale (Nishimura, Kawamura, & Sakurai, 2011) that measured autonomous and controlled motivation. The results revealed that autonomous motivation decreased in the students from elementary to junior high school, while controlled motivation increased during the same period. This is a unique finding because a prior study conducted in a Western culture suggested that both motivations decrease gradually in school.
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Developmental Disorder Parenting Stressor Index (DDPSI). The DDPSI items were developed from a questionnaire survey of mothers (N = 255) of children with developmental disorders. A factor analysis identified four factors: (a) difficulty understanding the child and coping with the child's needs, (b) anxiety about the child's future and independence, (c) inadequate understanding of the child's disorder, and (d) conflicting emotions with regard to the child's disorder. These factors had high degrees of internal consistency. The concurrent validity of the DDPSI was examined. The DDPSI scores significantly correlated with the Stress Response Scale-18 and the Handicapped Child Parenting Stress Scale. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggested that social support for the mothers mitigated the stressors' effect and reduced their psychological stress responses. The DDPSI is sufficiently reliable and valid to measure the stressors of parents of children with developmental disorders.
This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.
Intuitively, insight emerges unexpectedly. However, some previous views proposed that insight emerges with a high probability after people recognize their failure in solving a problem. In order to empirically investigate this failure-insight relationship, this study manipulated when participants recognized failure by using social comparison. It presumed that participants who had not yet solved the problem but knew others had already solved it would recognize that their currently adopted strategy was a failure; the timing of this was manipulated in the experiment. As expected, participants who were given a cover story regarding others' fast performance for the T-puzzle completed the same puzzle more successfully, as compared to those who were given a story of others' slow performance. The results suggest that the occurrence of insight was influenced by when participants recognized their failure. Providing social reality information (i.e., others' good/poor performance) might be a method to facilitate or inhibit insightful problem solving.
In addition to the cost of punishment, the fear that others would evaluate punishers negatively can be a major obstacle for resolving the second-order social dilemma or failure of providing sanctions useful for solving a social dilemma problem. In an experiment with 81 participants, we tested whether providing information that other participants were in favor of punishing non-cooperators in a social dilemma situation would enhance cooperation in the second-order dilemma (i.e., punishment of non-cooperators). Participants received feedback of three bogus “participants” choices in a four-person social dilemma, in which one bogus participant defected and two others cooperated, and then received a chance to punish the sole non-cooperator. The hypothesis was supported among those who were motivated to punish the non-cooperator. They punished the non-cooperator when they were informed that the other participants also wanted to punish the non-cooperator. The feedback information that the other participants wanted to punish the non-cooperator induced the participants who were not motivated to punish the non-cooperator to punish less.