Two experiments were performed with rats to examine whether electroconvulsive shock (ECS), which is known to produce retrograde amnesia (RA), would serve as a dominant cue in the training trial. In Experiment I, after 6, 1, or 0 ECS preexposures, rats were recieved ECS immediately following one-trial passive avoidance training in a step through apparatus. Twenty-four h later, six ECS preexposure group showed a higher level of retention performance. Thus, the effects of ECS on RA were shown to be attenuated by the preexposure to ECS. In Experiment II, it was shown that ECS acquired a considerable amount of cue value which might produce a conditioned suppression on an off-the-baseline type procedure. These results were interpreted as that RA phenomena could be considered as a sort of retroactive conditioning where ECS served as a CS.
Psychological reality of a “central tone” in the highly “tonal” melody was investigated by using the method of “final tone extrapolation”. Five kinds of stimulus tone sequence were made from each of the 35 six-tone melodic sequences (original sequences), for which rating scores of “tonality feeling” had been obtained; i.e., a two-tone sequence using the first two tones, a three-tone sequence using the first three tones, and so on up to a six-tone sequence using all of six tones, of each of the original sequences. Twenty-four subjects were asked to add an appropriate “final tone” to each of the stimulus tone sequences by using a keyboard of an instrument. For each of the sequences made from the “tonal” original melodic sequences, the final tone chosen tended to be restricted to a few specific tones in all five types of the tone sequences, while for the “atonal” original melodic sequences, the final tone chosen was diversely different. The results were discussed in relation to the “coherency” of a melody and other processing characteristics of human melody cognition.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual differences in auditory speech images available in reading printed material silently. In the first task of Experiment I, the subjects were presented with a pair of words in Kanji, and they had to judge whether the first word was the antonym of the second or not. The second task required the subjects to judge whether a presented phrase was comprehensible or nonsense. Both of these tasks adopted homophones as some of their stimuli, which made it possible to generate two conditions: (1) phonological-coding-necessary condition and (2) direct-pathway-available condition. The difference between the reaction times under the two conditions for each subject was regarded as an index of independence from auditory speech images when reading silently. Experiment II suggested that those who are likely to depend on such images showed much the same patterns of eye movements regardless of the way of reading (i.e. silently or aloud), when instructed to read the text at their own pace.
The effects of aging on hemispheric specialization in verbal and visuo-spatial functions were examined by dichotic listening and tactile recognition tests. In the first experiment, thirty aged (65-91 year) intact subjects and university students were tested by a dichotic listening tape with pairs of two-syllable meaningful words. The results revealed an overall decline of scores in the aged subjects but there was no interaction between subject and the degree of right ear advantage. In the second experiment, subjects were asked to judged whether successively presented nonsense tactile stimuli to each hand were identical or not. Reaction times and accuracy rates of each hand of the aged subjects were inferior to those of the control subjects. However, no interaction was found between hand and subject group. Both experiments show that there is no evidence to suggest any selective deterioration or specialization of hemispheric function in the aged people, though overall performance level declines with age, which may be caused by short-term memory deficit.
Three-, four-, and five-year-old children were tested on comprehension and production of two forms of basic (S-IO-DO-V) and transformed (S-DO-IO-V) bitransitive sentences. The effects of prototypicality of the described event and sentence complexity on performance were also investigated. The results showed that (1) for each group of subjects performance of basic bitransitives was better than that of the transformed both on comprehension and production, (2) transformed bitransitives were rarely produced or influenced either by prototypicality of the event or sentence complexity, (3) the less prototypical the event and the higher the sentence complexity the lower the performance on basic bitransitives, with this decreasing tendency being smaller for five-year-old children. The results were interpreted as substantiating Osgood's (1980) naturalness principle concerning the correlation between prelinguistic cognizing and sentence comprehending and producing.
Two experiments using a Y-maze examined the effects of stimulus salience and of stimulus validity upon the cue selection in mice (C57BL/6J). Mice were first pretrained in a discrimination task using one of the two stimulus dimensions (brightness or pattern) until they reached the acquisition criterion. The positive stimuli were the brighter card in the case of brightness dimension and the card with pattern in the case of pattern dimension. Then, the task was shifted to the compound-stimulus discrimination task with both of the dimensions present and the training was continued for 120 trials. In the final stage, the test was given to determine which of the two stimulus dimensions was to be selected by mice by presenting two positive cards of differing dimension simultaneously. When the brightness was much more salient than the pattern, the former was selected by all groups of mice, regardless of the difference in dimension given in the pretraining (Experiment I). When the relative salience of brightness was reduced to the level below that in Experiment I, the effect of pretraining was demonstrated (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I shows that the stimulus salience may sometimes produce stronger effect in the cue selection as compared with the stimulus validity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate, the relationship between attention switching time (ST) and psychological distance between two spatial locations in auditory space through the use of reaction time (RT) as an index. In this experiment, 10 subjects were asked to judge whether the frequencies of two tone pips presented succesively, SS and SC, were the same or different under five conditions (NS, S1, S2, S3, S4), each of which differed in psychological distance. Upon hearing presented binaurally tone pips, which differed from each other in intensity, the spatial locations pinpointed. Then, the change in locations of SS and SC was used for the assessment of psychological distance between these two spatial location. The results showed that the RT became longer as the psychological distance increased; thus the ST changed in accordance with the psychological distance between SS and SC. This supports the Continuous-analogue hypothesis of attention switching rather than Discrete hypothesis.
The purpose of this study is to examine dimensions of affectional expressions in Japanese proverbs. Seven thousand and ninety six proverbs were collected, of which 412 were selected as frequently used in everyday life. Fifty-five students rated the relevance of these proverbs to 13 categories of affectional words. The categories were “pessimism”, “optimism”, “coldhearted”, “warm-hearted”, “tension”, “relaxation”, “hesitation”, “daring”, “anger”, “fear”, “surprise”, “dislike”, and “like”. Based on Matsuyama, Hama, Kawamura, and Mine (1978), three to four affectional words were assigned to each category in order to define it more clearly. The data were analyzed by Q-mode factor analysis. Four bipolar factors (“cruelness-kindness”, “hesitation-daringness”, “fortunateness-unfortunateness”, and “laziness-perseverance”) and two monopolar factors (“surprise” and “hostility”) were extracted.
In a two-hole marble dropping task kindergarten children were verbally reinforced under one of the four combinations: RN (“Right”-Nothing), NW (Nothing-“Wrong”), RN-NW, and NW-RN. Verbal-reinforcement combinations for the latter two groups were shifted from RN to NW and from NW to RN, respectively, in the second half of acquisition period. For the RN-NW group the ratio of correct responses increased but the response rate decreased after shifting. Such changes did not occur for the NW-RN group. The results suggest that “Wrong” provides more information regarding correctness of responses than “Right” and increases the subject's attention to the task, and that “Right” promotes stronger motivation to perform tasks than “Wrong”.