Research in resident consciousness towards the community was carried out by means of questionnaires. The Ss were 457 residents, from 14 to 69 years of age. The results were that (a) through factor analysis, 15 factors in resident consciousness were abstracted, (b) the residents who would not settle were low in the degree of general interests and communication with the community, did not expect its prosperity, lacked pride as residents, and failed in human relations in the neighborhood, (c) those who worked in the city, the new-comers, and younger residents had critical resident consciousness, (d) those who participated in the public hall projects were high in concern about the community.
The principal purpose of the present study was to examine the adequacy of the interference theory in accounting for the so-called spacing effect in short-term memory tasks. A series of the 4 experiments were designed to investigate this problem by using the continuous paired-associate format and the Brown-Peterson format. The results indicated that the determinant of the effects of the spacing interval and the retention interval was the number of intervening items or tasks and this might be interpreted by the interference theory. Further, the relation between the spacing effect and the interference theory may be explained by assuming that the function of the spacing interval was mainly to provide the opportunity for the first encoded cue to forget rather than the stored information to forget by the interference.
In 2 experiments, 2 intertrial intervals (90sec or 24hr) and reinforcement schedules (continuous or partial) were combined factorially for 60 rats in straight alley type learning. One 320-mg pellet per reinforced trial was given in Exp. I, and sixteen 20-mg pellets in Exp. II. The rats received only 5 training and 20 extinction trials. A significant partial reinforcement effect (PRE) was obtained irrespectively of the length of intertrial interval or of the number of pellets. The data were not consistent with Amsel's hypothesis that the small-trial PRE was affected by the number of pellets given. Several implications of the present results were discussed in relation to Capaldi's stimulus-aftereffect hypothesis.
Kindergartners were employed to examine the effect of dimensional preference and discrimination sets on consecutive intradimensional (ID), and extradimensional (ED) shifts. Following dimensional preference assessment, discrimination shift problems were given to only form-preferd subjects. ID became gradually easier from the original learning to the step 2 problem, whereas ED became more difficult from the original learning to the step 1 problem and then easier from step 1 to step 2. The difference between ID and ED shifts was significant both on step 1 and step 2. ID shifts on their preferred dimension became easier from the original to step 1, whereas ID shifts on their nonpreferred dimension became gradually easier from the original to step 2, and the difference between the former and the latter was not significant except for the step 2 problem. From these findings, it was suggested that dimensional preference plays an important role as a mediator in kindergartners and dimensional preference may be important before the acquisition of general discrimination sets.
This study attempted to evaluate the Ego Strength of cerebral palsied children by means of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale. Ss were 23 CP children and 30 normal children. Results: (a) R. P. R. S total score, and FL, Sh, and FM categories, were lower than those of the normal group, (b) the CP group had a larger distribution of Final Prognostic Scores than the normal children, and the number of CP children who belonged to the higher Ego Stength grade was smaller than that of the normal children. It was concluded that the Ego Strength of CP children is not as high as normal children, and the individual variation is larger than in normal children.
Ratings of the ease of learning on a seven-point scale by 100 Ss were performed for the 1000 digits numbers between 000 and 999. The results revealed sizable and relatively consistent differences between the numbers using the split-half method. The values of rated ease of learning were shown to be related to learning difficulty by checking the results of serial-list learning.