“Aseri” is a Japanese term referring to an emotional state of “being impatient” or “feeling time urgency” that is experienced in everyday life. This study explored how people in early adulthood experienced aseri in their daily lives. Interviews were conducted with twenty young adults who recalled events or situations involving aseri. Grounded theory was referred in collection and analysis of data. The results showed that aseri developed in situations where there were several competing thoughts. Regarding the process in which aseri changed, two patterns were found: (a) when aseri was strongly experienced in the short term, it settled down easily; (b) when aseri was felt mildly in the long term, it gradually became latent. The theme of latent aseri reflected the developmental tasks of early adulthood that were considered significant for the participants including developmental tasks typically achieved in adolescence that were put off until early adulthood. Implications for aseri and directions for further research are discussed.
Auditory hallucinations are important symptoms when making a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Since normal people may also experience auditory hallucinations, there may be a spectrum of auditory hallucinations ranging from those experienced in schizophrenia to those experienced by normal people. To assess the propensity to auditory hallucinations in a non-clinical population, we selected forty items from the questionnaire in Tanno, Ishigaki, & Morimoto (1998) and developed the Auditory Hallucination-like Experience Scale (AHES). Test-retest reliability showed that the AHES was internally consistent. There were high correlations between the AHES and the STA subscale and the overall O-LIFE (especially ‘unusual experiences’), both of which are thought to be strongly related to schizophrenia. Furthermore, the rate of false positives was higher in people more prone to auditory hallucinations than in the group less prone to auditory hallucinations. Factor analysis revealed that the AHES consists of four factors. The results suggest that the AHES has high reliability and validity as a measure of susceptibility to hallucinations.
This study examined the motives for different expressions of humor. University students (n=286) completed a questionnaire regarding motives for three types of humor expressions: aggressive humor, self-disparaging humor, and playful humor. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the motives for the expressions of humor could be classified into five types: relationship construction, transmitting dissatisfaction, supporting others, managing self-impression, or supporting self. ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in the strengths of the motives among the three types of humor expressions. The results indicated that the motive for transmitting dissatisfaction was stronger in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. On the other hand, the motive for supporting others was weaker in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. Moreover, the motive for supporting self was stronger in self-disparaging humor expression than in aggressive humor expression.
Two experiments were conducted to identify the role of lyrics and melody in song recognition. Experiment 1 (N=30) investigated the ratings of familiarity, age of acquisition, retrievability of lyrics or melody, and happiness for 100 Japanese children's songs. In Experiment 2 (N=31), a familiarity-judgment task was conducted involving three stimulus types—sung lyrics (SONG), spoken lyrics (LYRICS), and sung melody using the syllable/la/ (MELODY) —for two excerpts (beginning and middle locations). The participants were instructed to judge whether an excerpt sounded familiar as quickly as possible. The more familiar the songs, the easier could they be identified from the three stimulus types. SONG-response time (RT) was shorter than MELODY-RT for both beginning and middle, and than LYRICS-RT for the middle. The location effect emerged most prominently for LYRICS-RT. Our results suggest that interactively connected information of lyrics and melody may facilitate song recognition. Lyrics in the beginning might be an index only for certain, very familiar songs, whereas melody may play a facilitative role for song recognition regardless of location.
A “sense of agency” involves a contemporaneous experience that the “self” causes the actions performed by the “self” (i.e., “I am the one who causes my actions”). This may comprise the main component of self-consciousness. The present research focuses on the development of a questionnaire to investigate the subjective aspects of a sense of agency. We selected items from the extant relevant measures and from previous empirical studies, and conducted four longitudinal surveys with additional scales. Statistical computations confirmed the validity and reliability of the Sense of Agency Scale (SOAS), consisting of seventeen items involving three factors. Furthermore, the results indicated that these three factors might be organized hierarchically, with each factor showing a unique relationship with emotional or social traits. This novel finding, emerging from the Sense of Agency Scale, would have been difficult to obtain via traditional empirical studies.
This study used an on-line method to explore whether the perception of irony occurs before considering common ground between speaker and listener. In Experiment 1 and 2, the shared common ground between the speaker and the listener was manipulated, and a meaningfulness-decision task was conducted immediately after the presentation of ironical utterances. The results showed that a priming effect was obtained only when common ground was shared by the speaker and the listener when utterances were presented with long duration (1800 ms). When utterances were presented with a short duration (1000 ms), however, priming effects were obtained regardless of the common ground. In Experiment 3, no priming effect was obtained when the contexts were presented without the utterances. The results suggest that ironic meaning is activated from an egocentric perspective at an early stage of processing and is inhibited at a later stage if it is not intended.
A cognitive load task was used to experimentally clarify differences in conscious and automatic processes during autobiographical memory retrieval. Conscious and automatic processes were estimated based on the IRK procedure (Jacoby, 1998; Jacoby & Hay, 1998). The results indicated that the value of conscious processes in the cognitive load condition was significantly higher than in the no load condition, whereas there was no significant difference between these two conditions for automatic processes. This result suggests that conscious processes use more cognitive resources than automatic processes. These characteristic differences support the theory of dissociation between conscious and automatic processes during autobiographical memory retrieval.
The four-card selection task (Wason, 1966) is one of the best known tasks used in the literatures of human reasoning. This article analyzes this selection task by using item response theory (Lord & Novick, 1968). Japanese undergraduates (N=323) responded six types of the Wason's selection tasks including indicative task (Wason, 1966), beer task (Griggs & Cox, 1982), and cassava task (Cosmides, 1989). An exploratory categorical factor analysis revealed a one factor structure of the six tasks. The results of an analysis using a two-parameter logistic model indicated that the indicative tasks were similar to the beer task and the cassava task in terms of the discrimination parameter, and that the relative diffculty between the tasks would varied according to the value of the ability parameter estimated by the two-parameter logistic model.
The ratio of studied to non-studied words on a test list is called the proportion overlap. Fujita (1994) reported that the proportion overlap affected the availability of conceptually driven processing, but not data-driven processing, on a word fragment completion test. In this experiment, we sought to extend the finding of the proportion overlap effect to a non-verbal implicit memory test. Participants previously studied either a list of pictures or words and then were presented with a picture fragment completion task. The proportion of studied items on the test was 20% or 80%. In the picture-study condition, perceptual priming occurred, and the amount of priming was not different between the 20% and 80% conditions. In the word-study condition, however, cross-form priming occurred only in the 80% condition, but not in the 20% condition. These results are consistent with the findings from the word fragment completion test, and suggest the generality of the proportion overlap effect on the data-driven implicit memory test.