This study aims to verify how other persons influencial for the formation of own self-image change during the period from preadolescence to eary adolescence, and what sorts of dynamism operating among the self-image, self-image assumed by others (reflected self-image: RS), and the images of others (objective self-image: O). A SCT questionnaire was administered to altogether 370 students of both sexes in 4th, 5th and 6th grades and freshman and sophomore year of junior high school. The significant others were identified on the bases of similarity between individual own self-image and ones assumed by others. All descriptions were classified as positive, negative or other, and the inter-relationships among them were examined. Findings were as follows: 1) Though the significant others in this period did not necessarily shift from their parents to chums, males were most susceptive to others' influence in the 6th grade, while females seemed to have already established their own self-images insusceptive to others by this age. 2) The significance of chums was confirmed for males throughout their school years. For females, however, no such trend was found, suggesting that any particular significant person would either appear in a later year or never be identified.
This study aimed at measuring and examining two aspects of anxiety in adolescence. After reviewing previous studies, it was hypothesized that anxiety concept has a positive aspect of human growth promotion in addition to a negative aspect of growth inhibition. In Study I, 20 preparatory items for both positive and negative anxiety were administered to 817 high school students with three other scales relevant to human growth: “purpose in life”, identity demension, and self-concept. Ten positive anxiety items and 15 negative items were selected, referring to pattern of factor loadings. These two anxiety scales were validated using three reference scales and responses of 12 neurotic clients as standards, and the mutual independence of two aspects was confirmed. In Study II, the characteristics of two aspects of anxiety in adolescence were examined, using the data of 817 high school students and 379 undergraduates. It was found that the level of positive anxiety increased through high school years, reaching a peak in freshman year, while the negative anxiety remained about the same level in the same period.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of individual differences in affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem on the self-evaluation maintenace (SEM) model proposed by Tesser et al. (1984). One hundred and seventy college students answered a questionnaire for measuring affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem, and also assessed their own as well as their friends' academic achievements in their senior high school subjects with both high and low degrees of relevancy. For those who were high in affiliative motivation, a significantly greater difference between the own and the friends' achievements was found in the academic subjects with low rather than high relevancy. However, the same difference was also greater in the academic subjects with low rather than high relevancy for those who were low in their achievement motivation or self-esteem. These results suggest that individual differences in some variables such as affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem would play an important role in the SEM model.
The purpose is to compare the effects of fear on escape behavior of individual and group conditions, in a computer-simulated maze. CRT display did not provide a bird's eye view of the maze, to the subjects, but only cues, what they would see, if they were actually inside of the maze. In the group escape condition, bodies and behaviors of other people were also shown in the maze. Subjects often got too close each other and collided with each other. The results: Fear increased the time and locomotion required to reach the exit, because of the occurrence of a “traffic jam” in the group escape condition, however, fear reduced time in the individual escape condition. In addition, fear influenced types of escape behavior, depending on the form of maze.
The purpose is to propose a construct of self-recognition need, and to elucidate structure and functions of the need in adolescent women. First, 242 female subjects (average age 19.0) responded to a questionnaire. The results were factor analyzed to construct two scales of the need: self-recognition need scale and escape from negative information need. Inquring these scales and their relation with maladjustment in daily life, the higher the maladjustment, the stronger their self-recognition need. In the second survey, 236 female subjects (average age 18.9) responded, Results: (1) subjects with stronger self-recognition approached positively to many information seeking (even when they expect negative information about themselves), (2) self-recognition need showed positive correlation with motivation for praise acquisition and rejection avoidance. The implication of these results were discussed.
The present study investigated the effects of meaning information on psychophysiological responses during imagery. Eighteen undergraduates were divided into arousal and relaxation groups, which were then given arousal-meaning- and relaxation-meaning-oriented trainings, respectively. After the training, the subjects were given the imagery test, and inter-heartbeat-interval (IBI), respiration, frontalis EMG, and peripheral temperature during neutral, snake, and social imageries were analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant main effect in IBI for groups: the arousal group demonstrated greater IBI changes than the relaxation group. Regarding EMG, significant increases were present during snake and social imageries in the arousal group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the relaxation group. No significant difference between groups was found in respiration and temperature. The results suggest that there are some situations that accompany their primary meanings, and that meaning-oriented trainings can modify the structure of the response propositions.
The purpose was to examine the effects of two types of role-playing experience on prosocial behavior in preschool children, Subjects were 72 6-year-olds. In the Empathy role-playing (E), each pair of children enacted alternately a victim and an eyewitness using a glove puppet, in which the emphasis was only on empathizing with the victim. In the Empathy and Helping role-playing (EH), they enacted alternately a victim and a helper, in which the emphasis was on empathizing and helping a victim. In the Contorol role-playing (C), they played roles alternately of a customer and a salesman in a grocery store. All children were assessed as for helping and sharing behaviors for a real victim before and after the role playing session. In the comparison between pre- and post-tests for helping behaviors All groups (C, E, EH) increased helping tendency, but only in EH group the proportion of subjects, whose attitude changed from helper to non-helper. As for sharing behavior, all three groups increased the number of sharing significantly in the post-test.
The present study attempted to construct the Japanese version of Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (Lennox & Wolfe, 1984). Factor analysis of this scale yielded two factors: 1) Sensitivity to expressive behavior of others, 2) Ability to modify self-presentation. This scale and its two factors had acceptable internal consistency: these results were almost similar with the original study. In correlational analyses with other personality measures, this scale correlated positively with both Private and Public Self-Consciousness Scale and Maudsley Personality Inventory-E Scale, but positively or negatively with some scales of Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory (e.g., G, S: positively. I, T: negatively.). Moreover the correlations between the two factors and the above mentioned measures provided interesting results. The availability of this scale was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate some characteristics of aspiration levels of Type A preschoolers. Twenty-two Type A and twenty-one Type B subjects selected from 245 preschoolers were given three tasks: ball-throwing task 1, ball-throwing task 2, and ringtoss task. After investigating some basic characteristics of aspiration levels in a standard situation (ball-throwing task 1), risk-taking (ball-throwing task 2) and competitive (ringtoss task) situations were introduced in order to study the modifications of aspiration levels. The results indicated that Type A children showed higher aspiration levels than Type B children, but that no differences of changes in aspiration levels by introducing risk-taking and competitive situations were found between the two types. These results were discussed from the view point of formation of Type A characteristics.
This experiment proposes a computer technique to find a witnessed one in the database of faces, from an eyewitness's feature description. The method is basically to choose the face with maximum likelihood for an eyewitness's description. The likelihood is derived from one of three models, in which the description of features by a witness is based on either (i) judgement through all features, (ii) feature sampling with replacement, or (iii) feature sampling without replacement. Three models were assessed by free description task of facial features. Results: these three models showed sufficient accuracy of retrieval, and the feature sampling without replacement model was superior to other two models.