Although self-disclosure after a negative experience may be good for our adjustment, we also feel hesitant to do so. This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and hesitancy to disclose negative information about one's self. One hundred and fifty-five undergraduates imagined self-disclosure to a friend of high or low intimacy. They then answered a questionnaire concerning hesitancy to self-disclose negative information to friends, as well as expected negative consequences of such self disclosure. Main results were: (1) Low intimacy strongly affected the hesitancy. (2) Factor analysis of the negative consequences found three factors: interpersonal and intra-personal negative-effect, and no positive expectation. (3) Hesitancy of high self-esteem students was most affected by the interpersonal factor. Impression management may be the reason. (4) On the other hand, low students tended to feel hurt after negative self-disclosure. Theirs was affected by the intra-personal and no positive expectation factors. Defensiveness may be the reason. The results were discussed from the viewpoint of adjustment when people have had a negative experience.
Three immediate serial recall experiments, using articulatory suppression examined the influence of visual long-term memory on visuo-spatial sketchpad. In Experiments 1 and 2, serial recall rates of unfamiliar figures, familiar figures, and numbers were investigated. The results showed that the more visual long-term memory the stimuli evoked, the more salient recency effects and primacy effects occurred. Based on these results, the following process is hypothesized to be one of the factors causing recency effects. If the visual information of items inputted into visuo-spatial sketchpad is already in long-term memory, only their retrieval cues are formed and retained. Thus, other information is erased from visuo-spatial sketchpad, which makes more room, so that subsequent items are inputted into visuo-spatial sketchpad. In Experiment 3, reaction times of a visual secondary task during presentation were measured. The results indicated that there was more room in visuo-spatial sketchpad when primacy and recency effects occurred, which supported the hypothesis. Finally, the interaction of working memory and long-term memory is discussed.
This study addressed people's judgments about desirability of various reward allocation under different task-rules aggregating individual inputs to a group outcome. The rules used in the study were additive, conjunctive, and disjunctive (Steiner, 1972), and subjects evaluated twelve cases of reward allocation reflecting different distributive principles, such as equality and equity. It was found that no one principle was favored under all three aggregation rules. Generally, a distributive principle was favored that was most beneficial for the member whose input ‘determined’ group success. Specifically, equality was endorsed most often under the conjunctive rule, and equity under the disjunctive rule. It was also found that the Pareto axiom was frequently violated. In pairwise comparison, more than 60% of the subjects endorsed an allocation scheme, that was, subjectively fairer but objectively inferior in terms of Pareto optimality, revealing their commitment to a specific distributive principle. The results suggest that the universal economic assumption of Pareto optimality for social policy-making be seriously questioned.
The purposes of this study are (1) to make scales of relationships between grandchildren in adolescence and grandparents, and (2) to clarify functions of grandparents perceived by grandchildren and functions of grandchildren perceived by grandparents. Subjects were 517 students in junior high schools, high schools and universities (mean of age: 17 years old), and 107 elderly persons at home (mean of age: 73 years old). As a result, factorial validity and reliability of the scales were confirmed. We found the functions of “daily emotional support”, “acceptance of existence”, “time perspectives”, and “succession of generations” in both the grandchildren scale and the grandparents scale. Additionally we identified the function of “instrumental informational support” in the grandparents scale. The fact that the functions of “time perspectives”, and “succession of generations” were found in two groups suggested the facilitation of mutual development between the generations. In addition, the function of “acceptance of existence” suggested possibilities of genuinely supportive relationships.
How drivers signal, park, escort their children across a street to a preschool, and depart was videotaped unobtrusively for 39 days, to test for consistency of driver behavior and children's crossing behavior. Data were analyzed for 17 pairs of drivers and children, observed more than ten times under identical conditions. Frequency of identical actions was analyzed on the basis of category systems, whereby a sequence of behavior was broken down into several items. A variety of individual differences and inter-behavioral differences in consistency were detected, and in general drivers were more consistent than children. Drivers' signals and accompanying of children were somewhat inconsistent, while some of their choice behaviors were very stable. Inconsistent behavior was discussed in terms of the lack of or insufficient specification of drivers' and children's schemas. Repeated naturalistic observation can not only identify behavioral consistency and reveal the structure of relevant schemas in daily life but also can predict behavior.
When people make a judgment as to whether a trait describes themselves or not, cognitive structure about the self must play an important role. Cognitive dimensions are a characteristic of such cognitive structure. The present study examined whether a self-referent information processing was mediated by cognitive dimensions of the self. For the purpose, Klein, Loftus, and Burton's task facilitation paradigm (1989) was adapted, which consisted of performing in succession two tasks, initial and target, for each trait adjective used. Experiment 1, which examined the evaluative dimension, showed that an evaluative processing in the target task was facilitated when the initial task was self-referent. Experiment 2, which examined six dimensions, showed that processing of the relevant dimension in the target task was facilitated when the initial task was self-referent. These results suggest that a self-referent information processing is mediated by cognitive dimensions of the self.
Using a conditioned suppression paradigm, differential conditioning between short (S, 0.7s) and long (L, 4.9s) US was studied in five groups of rats where the mean intervals between transition (S→L, L→S) and between nontransition (S→S, L→L) were varied across groups. Group ITI-S was trained with the short intervals in either case, while Group ITI-L was with the long intervals. Group Medium was trained with the intermediate intervals in either case. Group Trns-S had the short intervals between transition and the long intervals between non-transition. For Group Trns-L, these relations was just reversed. The greater differentiations were obtained in Groups ITI-L and Trns-L which had the long inter-transitional intervals. The figures of the differentiations were quite similar in two groups which had the same inter-transitional intervals despite of their mean intertrial or nontransitional intervals. These results suggest that the inter-transitional interval rather than intertrial interval plays a critical role for the trial-distribution effects in a differential conditioning of US duration.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between daily activity rhythms and depression college freshmen. A questionnarie was administered to 226 college freshmen, which contained scales for daily activity rhythms (e.g., keeping early vs. late hours), perceived state of own health, and degree of depression. Path analysis of the variables revealed that the path diagrams for normal-rhythm and confused-rhythm groups were different. In the normal-rhythm group, the daily activity rhythms did not affect depression tendency, whereas in the confused group, daily rhythms had both direct and indirect effects on depression tendency. The results suggest that disturbance in daily activity rhythms causes a depression tendency in college freshmen.
This study examined two hypotheses on the negative priming effect. Hypothesis 1: If a negative priming effect is due to response inhibition toward a distractor stimulus, it should occur in a condition where the response to a distractor stimulus is directly inhibited. Hypothesis 2: If response inhibition toward a distractor stimulus by itself is strong enough to produce a negative priming effect, it should occur even in earlier trials. Results showed that the negative priming effect did occur when the response to a distractor stimulus was directly inhibited thus confirming Hypothesis 1. As for Hypothesis 2, the negative priming effect did not occur with a few number of trials. suggesting that response inhibition toward a distractor stimulus becomes strong over the course of trials.