This paper examines consumers' preferences for competing brands by using a preference model of verbal protocols. Participants were 150 university students, who reported their opinions and feelings about McDonalds and Mos Burger (competing hamburger restaurants in Japan). Their verbal protocols were analyzed by using the singular value decomposition method, and the latent decision frames were estimated. The verbal protocols having a large value in the decision frames could be interpreted as showing attributes that consumers emphasize. Based on the estimated decision frames, we predicted consumers' preferences using the logistic regression analysis method. The results indicate that the decision frames projected from the verbal protocol data explained consumers' preferences effectively.
Relationships were investigated between the sense of unintegration of thoughts, recurrent thinking, and avoidance behavior, which are considered to be factors in maintaining anger. Undergraduate students (N = 990) were asked to write about anger episodes that they had experienced a week or more ago. Then, they completed a questionnaire assessing their sense of unintegration of thoughts at the present time and just after the episode, their present recurrent thinking, their avoidance behavior after the episode, and their present degree of anger. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode maintained anger through recurrent thinking. Recurrent thinking also intensified their present sense of unintegration of thoughts, which directly maintained anger. Moreover, the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode led to an increase in avoidance behavior, which was related to recurrent thinking.
This research focused on both the psychological benefits and costs of crying. We investigated the relationships of intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of crying. Female nurses (N = 300) were requested to describe one of the most impressive negative episodes where they had cried. Then, they were asked to complete a questionnaire including a scale of their psychological changes after the crying episode and the social reactions when they cried. Factor analysis revealed five components of the psychological changes scale. Solitary crying had greater effects for both psychological benefits and costs after crying than crying in front of others. Factor analysis revealed three components of the scale of social reactions. When they cried in front of others, “catharsis”, “positive attitude”, and “recognition of the relationship with others” after crying were associated with “empathy and social support” from others. The factors of “recognition of negative reality” and “negative attitude” were associated with “criticism and slander” from others. These results were discussed in terms of the communicative functions and the reflective functions of adult crying.
A survey and an experiment were conducted about the promotion of behavioral intentions for preventing sexual assaults by strangers. The study focused on the “identifiable victim effect,” where contextual descriptions of a single victim resulted in the collection of more donations than statistical descriptions of victims. A survey of 42 police websites that made recommendation for preventing sexual assaults revealed that only 3.3% of the threat messages described identifiable victims, whereas 50.0% referred to statistical figures. Additionally, only 9.5% of the coping recommendations mentioned the effectiveness of the recommendation. In the experiment, 207 female university students were randomly presented with one of four threat messages featuring victims (statistical, identifiable, combination, or none), followed by recommendation of high-efficacy or low-efficacy response. ANOVA indicated interaction effects of threat type and response efficacy on behavioral intentions. The effect of threat messages was statistically significant only when a high-efficacy response was recommended. The difference in behavioral intentions for different types of threats partly replicated the findings in donation. These results suggest that current threat appeals for crime prevention need refinements regarding both the threat description and response the efficacy.
Why do people make requests indirectly? We examined the goals of indirect requests in order to answer this question. In Study 1, 162 university students completed a questionnaire regarding the goals of indirect requests. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the goals of indirect requests could be classified into five types: concern for the listener, making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, or conveyance of indebtedness. In Study 2, we examined whether these goals actually affect the use of indirect requests by conducting a questionnaire study with 25 university students. The results indicated that some goals (making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, and conveyance of indebtedness) have positive effects on indirect requests, whereas the goal of concern for the listener has no effect. Therefore, we concluded that these four goals which have positive effects are reasonable goals for indirect requests.
This study investigated the relationship between the state anxiety of Sandplay makers and raters, and the raters' impressions of the Sandplay productions. The S-Anxiety subscale of the STAI was administered to college students. One group (N = 20) created Sandplay productions which were photographed. Three works were selected from higher S-Anxiety subjects (H-works) and three from lower S-Anxiety subjects (L-works). Then another group of 58 college students were asked to rate these Sandplay productions using the SD method. Factor analysis extracted three factors of Flexibility, Integration, and Activity. The raters were divided into two groups based on their S-Anxiety scores, and their subscale scores were examined using ANOVA. Significant main effects for the makers involved Flexibility and Activity (L-works < H-works). This suggests that the S-Anxiety and ego function of the makers influence their works. Furthermore, an interaction was found with Integration. Higher S-Anxiety raters rated the Integration of L-works lower than did the lower S-Anxiety raters. This indicates that higher S-Anxiety raters observed the free expression of lower S-anxiety makers from a partial perspective.
The purpose of this study was to improve the Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), and to examine the relationship between affinity for television and viewing behavior. Data was based on a random sample of 552 people in Hachioji City (Tokyo, Japan); the response rate was 55.2%. The results revealed the following: (a) the TAS 6-item version had sufficient reliability and validity, (b) the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors, and (c) affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned and non-concentrated television viewing. These results are consistent with the findings of Erikawa, Yamada, Kawabata, and Numazaki (2007). In addition, the TAS scores correlated positively with entertainment program viewing. This is consistent with the findings of Rubin (1984) that television affinity correlated with ritualized television viewing. The implications of these results for contemporary television viewing are discussed.
Working memory is a system for processing and storing information. The Reading Span Test (RST), developed by Daneman and Carpenter (1980), is well-known for assessing individual difference in working memory. In the present investigation, we used the Japanese version of the RST (Osaka, 2002) and analyzed individual differences in strategy use from the viewpoint of strategy type (rehearsal, chaining, word-image, scene-image, and initial letter) and frequency of use (used in almost all trials, in half the trials, or not used). Data from the participants (N = 132) were assigned to groups according to the scores, for the total number of words correctly recalled and the proportion correct. The results showed that the frequency of word-image strategy use differed significantly between high-scoring subjects (HSS) and low-scoring subjects (LSS). HSS mainly used word-image and chaining strategies, while LSS used rehearsal and chaining strategies. This indicates that HSS used both verbal and visual strategies, whereas LSS relied only on verbal strategies. The use of the word-image is important for effective retention of words in memory.