If we regard social members as moving points, abstracting their personalities and environment, it may be deduced topologically that a social region which consists of n members contains always a certain number of islets, as indicated by the following formula: In=1/2(n-1)(n-2). The islets mean tabu in the juristic, moral, and religious sense. It can be said in topological aspect, (1) that sociality is a system of tabu; (2) that since both one person region and two persons region have no islet and are topologically equal to each other, society is defined as a region which consists of three members or more (Figs. 1 & 2); (3) if we set a threshold on the moving ability of members, there may occur innersaturation of tabu corresponding to the islets less than In in the region, which is remarkable in the ancient feudal societies; (4) if a region is differentiated into two segments of different qualities, there may occur over-saturation of tabu based on conflicting tabus of the same islets in the region, which is remarkable in the capitalistic societies; (5) both by separation of a region and by connection of two regions, inner-saturation is forced to occur and some members are locked out from the region; and (6) that social tension is defined as conflicting tabus of the same islets. Thus, Lewin's formula of human behavior should be modified as follows: B=f(P, S, E) where S means sociality. It can be said in dynamic aspect, (7) that as the communication between two regions are performed by an arm of one region which is stretched to another (Figs. 3 & 4), an upper region can be defined as an locus of communication routes (i.e. arms) between them (Fig. 5); (8) that social regions communicate each other by their arms in the upperregion (i.e. outer-region) as well as personal regions do in the region (Fig. 5); and (9) that social evenis are defined as an overlapping of two arms of conflicting regions. When two conflicting arms overlapped, there arises radiation of a great deal of social energy and a new power-field occurs at the overlapping point, which may force a similar social event to occur. The latent time-interval between the first and the next social events may be shortened by the powerfield. We can see in molar aspect from the atlas of social events (Fig. 7), (10) that the latent time-interval may be shorter at the nearer behavioral distance than at the farther one from the point. We may call this phenomenon as a temporal field in sociality.
In the previous report of our studies, it was shown that the good or poor rapport with the tester influenced upon the intelligence quotient of feeble-minded children. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of rapport between tester and primary school children on the intelligence test score, and to find what is generally the good or poor rapport. Testers: 5 male and 4 female testers were chosen in accordance with the acceptance by subjects. Subjects: The subjects were 147 twelve-year-old primary-school children. Materials: Takemasa-Binet Intelligence Test and the Sin-Tanaka B-siki Intelligence Test. The conclusions drawn from the results were (a) that the good or poor social relationship with the tester in the test situation correlates significantly with the fluctuation of the test score of primary school children, (b) that the good or poor rapport is the good or poor social relationship with the tester in the test situation, and is a social relationship of the good or poor feeling with him throughout the test practice, but its feeling is an aspect of the rapport, and (c) that the tester's influence on test score varies with personality characteristics of the subject.
In the previous paper we have reported that the goodness of the social relationship with the tester in the test situation correlates significantly with the degree of fluctuation of the intelligence test score in primary school children. The purpose of the present investigation is to find the influence on the test performance, of the social relationship, in its process where the “good rapport” between the tester and the subject is formed. In order to determine differential effects of the good rapport as it is formed, subjects were given several occasions of contact with the tester: three experimental groups were given none, five, and ten occasions respectively, and a control group was given ten occasions but in a different way from those of the experimental groups. Subjects were 354 children of the fifth grade in the primary school. The findings obtained are as follows: 1. The good social relationship with the tester in test situation correlates significantly with the degree of fluctuation of the intelligence test score, This is identical to the results of the previous investigation. 2. It takes five or more occasions of contact for the “good rapport” to be performed between the tester and the subject. The good rapport depends also on the ways of contact. 3. The test score is affected by the number of occasions that the subject contacts with the tester. The results seem to indicate that the tester subject relationships are of great importance in the test situation.
Problem This paper aims to dimensionalize quantitatively the culture pattern of Japan. The piece of research presented here has been inspired by Cattell's example. He makes a factorial analysis of “group syntality” of family and nation and finds the major factors on those organizations. According to Cattell's method, the authors attempted to explore the major reference of the culture pattern that forms the personality of the Japanese. Procedure The authors selected 42 variables which seemed to denote the degree of culture. These were population, farm households, death percentage, gas supply, electric power consumed, telephones, savings, retail price index, local labor-membership, taxes, students of colleges and universities and religious affiliations, etc. These variables were represented with T-scores, for each of the 46 prefectures. The Pearson correlation between these variables were calculated. As a result, the authors obtained 861 correlation coefficients. Using Thurstone's centroid method, the authors explored the major factors of this correlation table. Result The authors extracted three factors. The first factor had the psychological significance, but the interpretation of the other factors was difficult. The variables positively loaded with the first factor were households, service establishments, telephones, savings. The ones negatively loaded, were death percentage, baby death percentage, farm households. Therefore, the authors called the basic first factor “Urban affluence Result. Rural poverty”. These results show, fundamentally, that the basic framework of the culture pattern of Japan consists of such basic actors. It seems that the basic framework influences the personality of the Japanese. These two factors were plotted in a diagramatic form. The authors found interesting facts in these figures. For example, one was that voting percentage and votes polled for Conservative Party were plotted in the Rural poverty factor, the other was that votes polled for Social Party were separated from local labor-membership. Then, the authors calculated the profile-values of the first factor in 46 prefectures. These results suggest that “Urbanity” and “Rurality” can be quantitatively measured.