This study examined the relationship between empathic responsiveness and the proneness to ‘zaiakukan’ (guilt) and ‘shuchishin’ (shame and embarrassment). Two hundred and thirty five Japanese undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Situational Guilt Inventory (Arimitsu, 2002), Situational Shyness Questionnaire (Narita, Terasaki, & Niihama, 1990), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983). As predicted, other-oriented empathic responsiveness, which measured perspective taking and empathetic concern, had a positive correlation with zaiakukan proneness, with shame and embarrassment controlled. On the other hand, self-oriented personal distress had a positive correlation with proneness to ‘kihazukashisa’, a component of shame and embarrassment, with guilt controlled. Inspection of correlations suggested that zaiakukan emerged from other-oriented empathy, and shuchishin in men from personal distress, because women's experience of shuchishin was less negative than men. Results on private shame were different from those in the previous studies (Leith & Baumeister, 1998; Tangney, 1991), and were discussed in terms of cultural differences.
The judged final position of a moving target that disappears is displaced forward (representational momentum: RM), a phenomenon called representational momentum (RM). Recently, Kerzel (2000) suggested that RM was elicited by SPEMs after a target's offset that moved the persisting image of the target in the direction of the motion after the target dissapeared. We examined RM for a target that was not pursued by eyes. In Experiment 1 the target and a small dot moved in the same or opposite direction. Participants were instructed to pursue the small dot and locate the final position of the target. In both conditions the target's motion on the retina was expected to be equal to each other. Although the Kerzel's hypothesis (2000) predicted negative RM for the target moving in the opposite direction of SPEMs, no consistent negative RM was observed. Results of Experiment 2 suggested that the individual strategy to use the small dot affected RM. Taken together, it was shown that Kerzel's lower-level model was not very successful in explaining RM, but instead data suggested that predictive mental extrapolation and a higher-order individual strategy were involved in the production of RM.
In this research, a new directions for utilizing the residual variable score in structural equation modeling was proposed. The residual variable score is created by removing the influence of the comprehensive index, which is strongly related to brand cognition from each trait factor. By using it as a new index, we tried to detect low cognition and high evaluation Brands which are not ranked high in the comprehensive index. It was shown that the ranking by the residual variable score on the same trait has very high correlation between years and same trait, and low correlation with the comprehensive index. Thus, the discriminant validity and stability of the new index were identified. Concerning the interpretation of the new index, it became clear that the brand which shows an increasing trend with the new index has the uniformly low degree of cognition as compared with the descending brand. It indicates that the new index has the capability of detecting brands with low cognition and high evaluation Brand.
Some paintings by renowned artists were drawn in inaccurate perspective, but the psychological effects of such technique on impression of paintings were not clarified. This study investigated the influence of information about inaccurate perspective on impression of paintings. Three famous paintings drawn in inaccurate perspective were used as stimuli. In two experiments, participants were asked to answer the impression of paintings using two kinds of rating scales, information rate scale (IRS) and semantic differential (SD) scale. When watching paintings, half of participants were given information about inaccurate perspective, and the other half were not. The impressions were compared between two groups. Results showed that information about inaccurate perspective increased “novelty” impression of paintings that consisted of mainly IRS items. We discussed the relationship between perception of inaccurate perspective and impression of paintings. Furthermore, we confirmed that it is efficient to separate impression of paintings into informational impression measured by IRS and semantic impression measured by SD scale in empirical study of paintings.
This research considered whether unsafe behaviors increase the likelihood of accident on the railway, and if so, what psychological factors contribute to unsafe behaviors? Study 1 investigated how frequently train drivers had committed errors and unsafe behaviors when train accidents occurred. Content analysis on 251 cases of railway accident reports revealed that intention errors (i.e., no intention or wrong one) and unsafe behaviors occurred simultaneously in most cases of accident. Furthermore, it was suggested that unsafe behaviors contribute to the occurrence of accidents. Study 2 examined the effect of psychological factors on unsafe behaviors. 148 train drivers completed questionnaires. We assumed the causal model that organizational factors affect unsafe behaviors indirectly through personal factors. Results of path analysis revealed as follows. (a) Concerning personal factors, evaluated cost (e.g., increased workload) and ineffectiveness of safety rules increased the frequency of unsafe behavior. (b) Concerning organizational factors, organizational management and norms increased the frequency of unsafe behavior indirectly through their effects on personal factors. Based on these findings, we discussed implications for more effective accident prevention.
Defensive pessimists (DPs) are considered to be adaptive pessimists because of their high performances, but the well-being of DPs have not been sufficiently studied. Some studies suggested that DPs have lower well-being than optimists, but it is not clear whether their level of well-being is as low as to be considered maladaptive. In this study, well-being was distinguished between psychological well-being including self-improvement, and subjective well-being as in the traditional notion of well-being, and compared well-being among DPs, strategic optimists (SOs) and depressed persons (DEPs) in a sample of 303 college students (F=160, M=143). Results indicated no significant differences in the level of psychological well-being among DPs and SOs, and both of these groups scored higher than DEPs. DPs also scored higher than DEPs in subjective well-being and no differences were found in satisfaction in life between DPs and SOs. Thus, this study concluded that the well-being of DPs were high in some regards and were not maladaptive.
This study investigated the relationship between expressed emotions through voices and emotions judged from the voices. In Study 1, to prove the judgment of emotions in speech, 21 participants evaluated emotions expressed by an actress. The average accuracy rate was 67.6%. Some emotions are more likely to be interpreted incorrectly than other emotions. The similarities of emotional categories caused some misjudgments. In Study 2, verifying the universality of judgment, 25 participants judged emotions expressed by 23 speakers. The average accuracy rate was 48.6%. Similar to the result of the study 1, there were some misjudgments on specific emotions; between sadness and relax, joy and relax, fear and sadness, and surprise and anger. To prove the role of acoustic cues, we examined the similarities of physical features in emotions using speech-analysis. Some emotions have similarities of vocal features and some have similarities of emotional categories. In conclusion, this study suggests that the similarities of vocal features and emotional categories lead to the judgments of emotions.
Research on affective priming effect has studied the process for which the positive or negative stimulus is evaluated unintentionally as such, despite the fact that many objects in our environment have ambiguous valences. This study investigated whether the ambiguous stimulus can be evaluated as positive or as negative unintentionally in accordance with the positive or negative consequences of the context in which the ambiguous stimulus is presented. One experiment (N=30) was conducted to examine whether the positive or negative target word was evaluated faster when the consequence of the context in which the preceding ambiguous stimulus was presented was consistent with the valence of the target word. The consequence of the context was controlled by using easy or difficult reward-induced-task for each priming trial. The results showed that the ambiguous stimulus was evaluated in accordance with the valence of the context in which the stimulus was presented. The process for which the evaluation changes was discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of interference on interhemispheric interaction in the reverse-stroop task. In two experiments, color-word in black ink and color-patch in red or blue ink were briefly presented to a bilateral visual-field (BVF). The participants were asked to identify the color word, ignoring the color patch. In Experiment 1, color-words written in kanji character were used as target (“赤”or“青”), In Experiment 2, color-words written in kana character were used as target (“あか”or“あお”). The result in Experiment 1 showed that the size of the interference effect was invariant irrespective of the visual-field of the target. On the contrary, in Experiment 2, the interference effect was larger in the condition where the kana color-word was presented to left visual-field (LVF) than to right visual-field (RVF). These results suggested that the interference effect would be modulated by the dominant hemisphere for processing the target.
In this study, we examined the relationship between the level of narcissism and justifiability evaluation of anger expression. Participants, 313 students, were asked to rate the justifiability of a variety of anger expressions by them as suffering victims, and answer the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-Short Version (NPI-S). Results indicated that the higher the sense of superiority and competence, which was an aspect of personality, the more justifiable they felt their unilateral expression of anger was. In contrast, the higher the need for attention and praise, another aspect, the less justifiable they felt their unilateral expression was. It was suggested, however, that individuals who had higher need for attention and praise tended to appraise suffering situations as severer, indicating that they would potentially evaluate anger expression as more justifiable. The results suggested that narcissism directly and indirectly involved in the justifiability evaluation of anger expression.