The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of commitment and of cooperation vs. competition which were assumed to influence the relative strength of consistency tendency and reciprocity tendency. Ss were 64 students in the 7th grade, and were asked to judge photographed faces in the group consisting of nine-students. After each trial, each S's judgement was announced. Attitudes toward others were measured by a questionnaire. The obtained results and interpretations of them were as follows: (a) Reciprocity tendency was generally significant. (b) Consistency tendency was also evident in the cooperation-commitment condition and the competition-non-commitment condition. (c) In the former condition Ss avoided over estimations from others due to the fear for taking responsibility beyond their ability. (d) In the latter condition overestimations imposed Ss a strong mental strain.
3 experiments were conducted to examine mainly smiling and attention response of 3-to 12-month-old infants toward 9 kinds of facial models which differed in dimension, age, and the arrangement of the facial elements. The experimenter's face and the gray background were also added to the stimulus conditions. Smiling occurred most frequently in 3-month-old infants, and declined with age. Three-dimensional adult Normal Face and the experimenter's face elicited smile most frequently in all months of age, but two-dimensional one did not, except in 3-month-old infants. Child Normal Face was not as effective as adult one. Several attention measures suggested that the amount of smile was closely related to the infant's ability of recognition.
The present experiment adopted a new method to determine the trial block in which the subject acquired awareness after completing conditioning trials, attempting to reply to the question whether the traditional method assessing awareness during conditioning trials assists the subject to acquire awareness. The purpose of the present experiment was to test the temporal relationship between awareness and performance in a Taffel-type task, using this new method. The main results were as follows. (a) Only aware subjects showed a significant performance increment. (b) Performance did not increase before the trials in which awareness was acquired. (c) Performance at the first block of the post-aware phase was significantly above performance at the end block of the pre-aware phase for both raw and Vincentized data.
2 experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of mediating responses on reversal and nonreversal shifts with verbal materials containing 2 dimensions or representing 2 aspects of concreteness simultaneously. In Exp. I, the tasks involved form and color dimensions, with 2 and 4 stimulus cues being used. The 2 cue-group learned faster than the 4 cue-group in original and shift learning. Reversal shift was easier than nonreversal shift. In Exp. II, the tasks involved two aspects of concreteness (food and color), and 2 and 4 cues. Original learning was easy only when the food was relevant. Reversal shift was easier than nonreversal shift and in reversal shift no difference between the 2 and 4 cues was found, but in nonreversal shift some difference was found. The relevance of these findings to mediational S-R theory and response-switching theory was discussed.
(1) Effects on aggressive behavior of interpersonal relations between the frustrator and the frustrated were investigated. (2) Hypothesis I: Aggressive behavior will be exhibited greater when they belong to the different group (out-group-relation) rather than to the same group (in-group-relation). Hypothesis II: Aggressive behavior will be exhibited greater when the frustrator is higher in status than the frustrated rather than vice versa. (3) Ss, 100 undergraduate students, were given questionnaires on which they indicated the responses that “people” would make in various frustrating situation. As the questionnaires, the pictures of the modified P-F study were used. (4) Results provided strong support for the hypotheses.