心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
ISSN-L : 0021-5236
88 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
原著論文
  • 内田 遼介, 釘原 直樹, 東 亜弓, 土屋 裕睦
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 219-229
    発行日: 2017/08/25
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    Previous studies have revealed that past experience shared by the members of a group can uniformly increase or decrease the collective efficacy. However, it remains unknown how appraisal formation processes occur within an athletic team in which each member of varying ability appraises collective efficacy from the perspective of shared past experience. The purpose of this study was to examine the processes related to appraisal of collective efficacy in terms of the task-related abilities of individual members. The participants, 75 healthy males, were assigned to triads. The triads were instructed to cover a combined distance of 2,000 m as quickly as possible on a bicycle. The comparative task-related abilities of the participants were manipulated through false feedback before the task. The results revealed that participants with superior condition only appraised collective efficacy based on their own potential contribution, and that collective efficacy was associated with individual effort during the task. These results could be interpreted in the light of instrumentality, which is an element of the Collective Effort Model (Karau & Williams, 1993, 2001).

  • 島田 貴仁, 荒井 崇史
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 230-240
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/07/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the factors in threat appeal responsible for maintenance of crime-prevention behavior. At four public bicycle parking lots, 256 riders with variable receiver vulnerability characteristics were encouraged to use an extra bicycle lock. They were randomly presented with one of three threat messages featuring victims of bicycle theft (identifiable victim, statistical victim, or control), followed by either high- or low-efficacy preventative-messages. After extra locks were installed on their bicycles, participants’ use of the lock was observed five times within 28 days after the intervention. A mixed-effect generalized linear model revealed that vulnerability of the participants increased the use of the lock immediately after the intervention. Meanwhile, highly vulnerable participants who were presented with an identifiable victim and high-efficacy messages decreased their use of the lock significantly compared to low-vulnerability participants and those who were presented with the low-efficacy message. The result implies that threat appeal strategies differ depending on receiver vulnerability and the type of preventative behavior.

    Editor’s picks

    2018年度 心理学研究掲載 優秀論文賞受賞論文

    授賞理由
    本論文は自転車駐輪時のツーロック行動(防犯性を高めるため,カギを2つ掛けること)を題材とし,「犯罪被害の脆弱性」が異なる自転車利用者に,「脅威アピール情報の種類」と「予防行動の効果性情報」を操作した介入実験を実施することにより,それら要因が介入後のツーロック行動に与える影響を検討したものである。分析の結果,介入時に測定した行動意図(今後ツーロックをするという意図)の高低は,翌日のツーロック行動に影響するが,それ以降のツーロック行動の減衰には関係しないこと,統計情報の提示は事例情報に比べて予防行動の持続性に効果的であることなどが明らかにされた。また,操作された3要因の交互作用から,今後の防犯に向けての効果的な介入方法について,有益な結果が得られている。本研究の特筆すべき点は,フィールドにおいて実際の行動を従属変数とした実証的研究を行っていること,および28日間に及ぶ長期的な影響を検討していることである。災害や犯罪などのリスク問題に心理学からアプローチする研究では,往々にして主観的な評定のみをアウトプットとし,しかも,短期的な影響過程で議論を閉じてしまっているものが多い。それを乗り越えるには,様々なコストと工夫を要するが,本研究はそれにチェレンジしている。得られたデータは貴重であり,分析も丁寧にされている。こうした点から,本論文は優秀論文賞に値すると判断された。

研究資料
  • 市村 賢士郎, 上田 祥行, 楠見 孝
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 241-250
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    The anagram task is widely used in psychological research as a manipulation of independent and dependent variables. The purposes of this study were to develop a database of anagrams and to clarify the relationship between material word characteristics and the difficulty of an anagram. We developed 147 five-letter hiragana anagrams and tested them on 39 university students. In the experiment, we measured the rate of correct answers within 3 minutes, solution time, and subjective difficulty as indices of task difficulty, as well as familiarity, imageability, and emotional valence as word characteristics. We found significant correlations between task difficulty indices and word characteristics; specifically, increasing word characteristic ratings indicated decreasing difficulty of the anagrams. The data from this study could be used to choose anagrams for psychological experiments, and as a guideline to modulate difficulty when developing other anagrams.

  • 渡邊 寛
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 251-259
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    Recently, with gender equality advancing within society, men are increasingly being expected to undertake other, non-traditional, roles. The aim of this study was to develop the new male roles scale, and examine its reliability and validity. Study 1 showed that the new male roles scale consisted following four factors; Attentiveness to Women, Commitment to Household Responsibility, Consideration for Others, and Emancipation from Emotional Restriction and Toughness. In study 2, four items for each factor were chosen and goodness of fit of this scale was confirmed. Furthermore, the result revealed that this scale had certain validity. Study3 showed that this scale had time stability, except for Commitment to Household Responsibility. However, its internal reliability was confirmed in study 2. These results suggest that this scale has certain reliability and validity. Finally, the relationship between this scale and previous researches was discussed.

研究報告
  • 名畑 理津子, 小川 健二
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 260-266
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    Eidetic imagery is a kind of mental visual imagery that is externally localized and literally “seen” by the eidetiker. Previous studies have not clarified whether eidetikers have enhanced visuo-spatial memory abilities. This study compared visuo-spatial short-term memory capacities between eidetikers and non-eidetikers who were matched in terms of age, gender, and visual imagery ability. We measured the memory capacity of nine eidetikers and 18 non-eidetikers in two memory tasks (Visual Pattern Test and Corsi Block Test) that differed in the mode of presentation of visual stimuli (simultaneous and sequential, respectively). Eidetikers performed better than non-eidetikers on simultaneous tasks but performed similarly to non-eidetikers on sequential tasks. This study suggests that eidetikers are better at retaining stimuli presented simultaneously.

  • 渡辺 友里菜, 吉崎 一人
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 267-273
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    The proportion congruency (PC) effect is a congruency effect that decreases as the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a given block increases. Researchers have been interested in the transference from a set of congruent to incongruent trials, with different ratios to a set of congruent and incongruent trials with equal ratios (diagnostic task). This present study investigated whether the PC effect is transferred across tasks with a coexisting Stimulus-Response conflict (Simon task) and Stimulus-Stimulus conflict (spatial-Stroop task) in a Stimulus-Response compatibility task. Right-handed students (N = 16) were required to identify the direction of an up/down arrow presented in four possible locations (right/up, right/down, left/up and left/down). We observed the transference from two perspectives, i.e., the Simon and spatial-Stroop views. The results indicated that the PC effect was not transferred across different types of conflicts. Therefore, these results suggest that attentional control in the Simon and spatial-Stroop tasks is independent and has a simultaneous effect.

  • 外山 美樹, 長峯 聖人, 湯 立, 三和 秀平, 黒住 嶺, 相川 充
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 274-280
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    According to the regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people engage in goal pursuit in a manner that fits their orientation (e.g., promotion/eager or prevention/vigilance), they experience regulatory fit and engage more strongly in the pursuit, leading to better outcomes. The present research investigated the influence of regulatory fit on performance by considering the type of performance (speed or accuracy) and the kind of regulatory fit (promotion/eager, or prevention/vigilance). In Study 1, 85 university students were induced to hold a promotion or prevention orientation. In Study 2, 90 university students were assessed for individual differences in regulatory orientation. The results indicated that speed performance was best when there was promotion/eager regulatory fit, whereas accuracy performance was best when there was prevention/vigilance regulatory fit. These findings suggest that the performance effects of regulatory fit are not identical, but differ according to the types of regulatory fit.

  • 曺 美庚, 釘原 直樹
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 281-287
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    心理学研究第88巻第3号掲載の曺 美庚・釘原 直樹著,「文化,性,パーソナリティがタッチ性向に及ぼす影響」論文は,著者より取下げられました。
  • 松本 明生, 平岡 恭一
    2017 年 88 巻 3 号 p. 288-293
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー

    Impulsivity has been linked to traffic safety problems in many prior studies. However, it is not clear whether impulsivity, defined by the rate of discounting delayed monetary rewards, relates to drivers’ problematic behavior. We investigated the relationship between the discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes and near accident (i.e. hiyari-hatto) experiences during driving among occupational drivers. A total of 189 occupational drivers (160 men) completed the delay discounting questionnaire and hiyari-hatto experiences scale. In completing the delay discounting questionnaire, participants were asked to perform the two delay-discounting tasks, in which they chose between ¥100,000 or ¥5,000 available after some delay (from 1 month to 5 years) or a lesser amount of money available immediately. Subjective equivalence points were obtained from participants’ choices on delay discounting questionnaires, from which the areas under the curve (AUC; Myerson et al., 2001) were calculated. The results indicated that the rate of discounting (AUC) was negatively correlated to near accident experiences. We discuss the need for future research on impulsivity, delay discounting, and traffic safety.

feedback
Top