Learning and resistance to extinction in external-self dual reinforcement (ESR) were compared with those in external reinforcement (ER). ΔESR (Δ: extinction process) was also compared with the corresponding process of other two conditions; 1) discontinuation of self reinforcement after externalself dual reinforcement (ΔSR), 2) discontinuation of external reinforcement following the dual reinforcement (ΔER). Undergraduates (n=58 in Experiment I, n=74 in Experiment II) were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Subjects were given association learning in Exp. I and memory task in Exp. II, respectively. Those who responded successfully were then shifted to extinction session for testing. Effects of ESR on learning were same as those of ER in the two experiments. Resistance to extinction in Exp. I was significantly higher for ΔSR and ΔESR as comapred with ΔER and *ER (extinction switched from external reinforcement). Resistance for ΔSR in Exp. II was significantly higher than for the remaining conditions. Based on these findings, high level of the resistance for ΔESR was discussed by attributing it to the internalization of ESR.
Behavior in a shuttle-box of four inbred strains of mice (BALB, C3H, C57BL and DBA) was observed by time-sampling method with 11 behavioral items in order to determine how their dyadic sequential structure of the items would be modified under a passive avoidance procedure. Mice in the safe-compartment could enter freely into the shock-compartment, the gird of which was electrified during Days 1-5. A common structure mainly composed of six items was found in every strain on Day 0 when the grid floor was not electrified. The structure was modified on Days 1-5. Entries into the shock-compartment were greatly reduced in all strains as the shock-experience increased, indicating the establishment of passive-avoidance. However, the way they avoided shocks was quite different between BALB and the other strains. In the latter the transitions between ‘locomotion’ and ‘peeping’ and between ‘sniffing’ and ‘peeping’ did not extinguish, while in BALB these transitions extinguished after Day 1, which means they avoided even ‘peeping’ into the shock-compartment. It was concluded that the passive avoidance strategy may be different among inbred strains.
Proceptive behavior, according to Beach (1976), maintains and accelerates sexual interactions toward the end goal. Such distinctive type of proceptive behavior as darting or hopping of female rats is not apparent in mice. Nevertheless, it seems more reasonable that females may take an active part as much as their male partners also in this species. Twenty sexually experienced females in estrus were paired with 20 naive males of the same strain (ICR/JCL) and the pairs were observed for 6 hours. Eleven males of the 20 pairs successfully ejaculated. Females exhibited lordosis more frequently when they actively approached the male partners than when they were approached and mounted by males. This indicated that the rate of mating success was higher in the case of female's approach. Female's approaching behavior thus possibly plays a role as a proceptive behavior in mice.
Effects of feedback and changing criterion procedure on the skin temperature control and cognitive events (motivation, perceived control of skin temperature, and sensations accompanied with autogenic training) during an autogenic training (AT) were examined. Fifteen male students, five of each, were assigned to either AT with feedback under a fixed criterion (AT-FC), AT with feedback under a changing criterion (AT-CC), or AT without feedback (AT-NF) groups. Subjects were asked to increase the temperature of the right index finger using the AT in 12 training sessions. The criterion of feedback was fixed in the AT-FC group while it was increased in the AT-CC group when the temperature had satisfied the criterion in the previous session. Feedback had no effect on the performance of skin temperature control. However, it functioned as a cue for the judgement of performance and weakened the feeling of heaviness of the limbs. Changing criterion improved the performance gradually and increased the perceived efficacy of AT. These results suggested that the arousal elicited by feedback stimuli might suppress the feedback effect, and that the criterion could control the pattern of skin temperature change.
Two experiments were conducted to examine what kind of awareness to the internal control process should be encouraged in order to effectively acquire the control of a novel muscular activity with electromyograph (EMG) biofeedback. The m. auricularis posterior (the muscle to draw an ear backward) was selected as the target muscle of this study. Experiment I investigated the relation between control ability and awareness of the target muscle activity. Results showed that subjects who were able to move their ears could be aware of the target muscle activity more precisely than those who were unable to do it. In experiment II, 32 undergraduate and graduate students who could not move their ears were required to activate their left m. auricularis posterior. Results provided evidences supporting the hypothesis that, in the initial stage of the acquisition of control, subjects who were encouraged to be aware of ways and feelings of striving (efferent process) and were given EMG feedback signals from the target muscle could aquire the control of the target muscle activity more effectively than those who were encouraged to be aware of a bodily feeling brought about by the striving (afferent process) and who were given no EMG feedback signals.
The present study aimed to clarify the function of 45 Japanese connectives and to examine the necessity of them in text-comprehension. Subjects were given sequences of two sentences and were asked to select connectives that were acceptable between the two sentences. Subjects were also required to rate the necessity of having connectives for each inter-sentential position. The “interchangeability” between each pair of the 45 connectives was calculated by counting the number of times that each pair was selected together for the same inter-sentential position. By using the cluster analysis based on the “interchangeability”, the connectives were classified into six clusters, i.e., “Anti-prediction”, “Confirmation”, “Causality”, “New-topic”, “Addition”, and “Disjunction”. There were some differences between our clusters and the traditional categories proposed by linguists. “Anti-prediction”, “Confirmation”, and “New-topic” were unique to our classification. Our classification seems to reflect more accurately the readers' knowledge about the use of connectives, because connectives used in the same inter-sentential situation were classified in the nearer clusters. The necessity for connectives in “Anti-prediction” and “Causality” was rated high. Without these connectives, the inter-sentential situations may impose much information processing load on readers either by upsetting their prediction in the case of “Anti-prediction”, or by requiring them to search for large amount of ‘world knowledge’ in the case of “Causality”.
Jampolsky (1970, 1978) found that the light from the nasal visual field seen through the eyelid of one eye is seen in the direction of the temporal visual field when the other eye is occluded. We examined whether the “false projection” is an artefact of the light “leaking” into the occluded eye. Completely occluding one eye did not eliminated the “false projection”: four observers saw the light in the nasal field as coming from the temporal field in 89.4% of the trials whereas the light in the temporal field as coming from the temporal field in 95.6% of the trials. The phenomenon still needs an explanation.
The effectiveness of cognitive strategies and the training procedure for a motor learning, which seemed difficult to control voluntarily, was examined. The task was the abduction without fluctuation of the big toe. Two experiments were conducted with 16 and 20 subjects in each. Results suggest that (1) it is necessary to provide a relatively long duration for each trial in the training session in order to let the subjects to find their appropriate strategies; and (2) the greatest facilitatory effect is obtained when they individually attempt to control the abduction of the big toe with attention to the direction or its movements which inevitably contract the M. abductor hallucis, whereas the knowledge of the location of the muscle has little effect on its motor learning. The implication of these results to the rehabilitation for physically handicapped persons was discussed.