This study examined the risk factors for mental health problems and complicated grief in bereaved families using a nationwide sample of 453 Japanese adults who had lost a family member to a motor vehicle accident within three years. The results indicate that 31.0% of participants had K6 scores > 13 and 61.0% had ICG (Inventory of Complicated Grief) scores > 26. A higher K6 score was associated with secondary victimization and support seeking, whereas a higher ICG score was associated with the death of a child. Dispute over the liability for the accident and the resulting anxiety, measured by the Japanese version of ECR (Experiences in Close Relationships), were common predictors of higher K6 and ICG scores. The results suggest that complicated grief is more dependent on the circumstances of the death, whereas mental health problems are more affected by a participant’s coping after the death, implying that effective support and interventions are necessary for mental health problems and complicated grief after a violent death.
This study focuses on two questionnaire surveys that were conducted about the adoption of the Private Finance Initiative (PFI prison) method in Japan as a new correctional system. For study 1, a Web questionnaire was administered to residents of within a 30 km zone of Tokyo as well as those in Yamaguchi Prefecture to determine familiarity and resistance to the PFI prison systems. For study 2, a questionnaire survey was administered to residents of a neighborhood near a PFI prison in Mine city. The results showed that the attitudes toward the PFI prison were more positive in this area. Furthermore, contact with the correctional systems promoted residents’ acceptance of prisoners and former prisoners. Finally, we discuss social and institutional support and contact with social systems to promote social inclusion.
This study examined the influence of prosocial behaviors on evaluations of morality and warmth. There were four patterns of interaction: positive reciprocity (with both cost and benefit), only-cost (with cost but without benefit), negative reciprocity (without either cost or benefit), and only-benefit (with benefit but without cost). Three-hundred-fourteen undergraduate students participated in this study. The participants read an example of interaction and evaluated the actors’ morality and warmth. Results of one-way ANOVA showed that the ratings of morality and warmth differed significantly between the conditions. There was no significant difference of perceived morality between only-cost and positive reciprocity. In contrast, warmth was evaluated higher in only-cost than in positive reciprocity. This suggests that people evaluated morality and warmth differently depending on whether the prosocial behavior was obligatory or optional.
This study investigated the triggers for removing irrelevant information from working memory. Based on the perspective that removal is a unique process of updating working memory (Ecker et al., 2010), we hypothesized that the removal process begins after selection of task-relevant information. To test this hypothesis, we employed a modified Sternberg task that reflects the time-course for the removal of information. In a standard procedure of this task, the removal process is thought to be completed in approximately 1,500 ms after directing relevant information. If selection induces removal, removal might not end within 1,500 ms when selection requires more time. To increase the time for selection, we created a circumstance with high interference. Experiment 1 showed that removal was incomplete within 2,000 ms after directing relevant information. Experiment 2 showed that removal could be completed given more time. These results support the hypothesis that the trigger for the removal process is the completion of selection. This is in consistent with recent frameworks concerning executive functions.
This study examined the relationships between the reasons for confessions and interviewing styles by administering a self-reported questionnaire to new male adult prison inmates across Japan. The three factors proposed by Gudjonsson and his colleagues (1991, 1992, 1994, 1999), namely, perception of proof, internal pressure, and external pressure, were investigated. When participants had decided to confess prior to interviews, they were more likely to confess due to perception of proof and internal pressure compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, participants who experienced a relationship-focused interviewing style, which stressed active listening and rapport-building while talking about the criminal incidents directly, were more likely to confess due to internal pressure and less likely to confess due to external pressure.
We developed the Interpersonal Sensitivity/Privileged Self Scale (IPS) to measure personality traits related to “modern-type depression,” and assessed its validity and reliability through three surveys completed by 804 undergraduates. Factors for validity were examined by confirmatory factor analysis. As predicted, the scale comprised two superordinate factors: interpersonal sensitivity (IS) and privileged self (PS). Criterion-related validity for the IPS scale was assessed by examining its relationship with depressive symptoms and typus melancholicus, and by comparing subscale scores regarding depression types (i.e., melancholic, atypical). All subscale scores were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Correlations between typus melancholicus and subscales showed that the interpersonal sensitivity subscale was positively correlated with typus melancholicus, while the privileged self subscale was not correlated. An analysis of variance revealed that the “self-righteousness” score was significantly higher for the atypical depression group compared to the melancholic depression group. The test-retest correlation indicated good test-retest reliability for all subscales. Overall, the findings indicated that the IPS has high validity and reliability.
It is reported that there are no victim-offender relationships in serial homicides, so offender profiling is useful for resolution of serial homicide cases. The present study aimed to describe characteristics of serial homicide offenders as a part of offender profiling and compare characteristics of serial homicide with those of single homicide offenders. We found that serial homicide characteristics were divided into 3 types (Destruction, Mission, and Antisocial). On the other hand, single homicide characteristics were divided into 4 types, which included Domestic in addition to the 3 types mentioned above. Overall, serial homicide offenders try to avoid detection of their murders compared to single homicide offenders. However, there was not much difference between the patterns of serial homicides and those of single homicides. Therefore, we conclude that there are few qualitative differences between serial and single homicide offenders.
This study investigated posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth among 534 fire fighters who were dispatched to the disaster area following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Specifically, we investigated the effect of acute stress symptoms and social support from peers and family on posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth one year after being dispatched. We found that dispatched fire fighters experienced posttraumatic growth as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms following disaster work. Moreover, social support from peers was positively associated with professional growth as a disaster worker, whereas social support from family positively associated with gratitude. These results imply that it is useful to take into consideration supporting the posttraumatic growth of fire fighters as an opportunity for professional growth with respect to stress management programs as well as relieving posttraumatic symptoms with early intervention.
This paper examines the definitions and measurement scales for financial literacy presented in previous studies in order to develop a new financial literacy scale. The early definition of financial literacy basically meant “financial knowledge,” but the latest definition has been extended to include or refer to consumers’ financial behaviours, consumers’ interactions with their social and economic environments, and the effect of cognitive biases on consumers’ financial behaviours. On the other hand, conventional measurement scales for financial literacy are generally composed of declarative knowledge questions and numerical ability tests concerning personal finance. This paper addresses the fact that previous financial literacy scales have been based on the traditional concept of “Homo economicus”. We suggest that it is necessary to develop a new financial literacy scale that is comprised of critical thinking disposition such as “awareness for logical thinking” or “evidence-based judgment.”