In this study, hypotheses for the modality effect based on separate precategorical stores for auditory and visual information were evaluated by presenting additional words auditorily or visually following the presentation of the to-be-remembered words. The major findings were as follows: (a) When the to-be-remembered words were presented auditorily, the recall of recency words was higher for the condition in which additional words were presented visually. (b) When the to-be-remembered words were presented visually, the recall of recency words was the highest for the condition in which the to-be-remembered words were recalled immediately. The following conclusions were drawn from these results: (a) In PAS, information is displaced by additional auditory information. (b) In PVS, information decays more rapidly than in PAS, although PVS can hold information long enough to affect the recall of recency words.
Two free recall experiments were performed under three selective conditions to decide whether meaningful relation between to-be-remembered item and not-to-be-remembered item would affect the selective recall of the former. In Post condition, where the selection is possible after PM, meaningful relation affected adversely only the SM recall, but it hardly affected the recall in other two selective conditions. It also increased the number of the Intrusion-errors in all the three selective conditions. The results were thought to indicate that the selection is not performed independently of memory, and they throw some doubt on the box theory dividing strictly the memory into PM and SM.
Two high-identification groups (H and A) and two low-identification groups (L and B), consisted of the 5th-grade girls, were given a memorization task. The task was to memorize a set of 6 sentences, each included 6 different words presented previously. For Groups H and L, the model verbal behaviors were pre-constructed and tape-recorded, which were read through telephone by their own mothers; for Groups A and B, they were read by a strange female student. Group H showed significantly higher imitation scores than any other groups as was hypothesized. However, no significant differences among all groups were found regarding the amount of correct recalls, tested both immediately after and 50-days after the memorization. Group A showed reminiscence phenomenon on the imitation scores, which did not support the hypothesis.
Three predictions of effects of cognitive dissonance on task evaluation and task performance were examined in two experiments, which were derived respectively from Weick's “dissonance reduction process” model, Hull-Spence's drive theory, and Takada-Hashimoto's “one way alternative” hypothesis. The design of Exp. I was dissonance (2)×task interest (2)×time for assessing task evaluation (3). Four hundred and eighty-one 7th-graders served as subjects. The results seemed to support the prediction derived from the drive theory. But there remained some possibility for Weick's model to be valid. In Exp. II, with similar design and subjects, the result tended to be supported by Weick's model better than by the drive theory. These findings suggested a new model, which is not merely a modification of Weick's model, but also implies conception from the drive theory.
(a) The purpose of this study was to explore the self-control system of small groups, especially the system to regulate group goal and performance by means of feedforward and feedback information. (b) The experimental task of each group was to add from one to five, to random numbers. Subjects were fifth grade boys. In one situation of Experiment I, members were given a goal, besides feedback information, but in the other situation, they had to set their goal. In one situation of Experiment II, members set their group goal, but they had no feedback information. In the other situation, they did. (c) Operators W1 to W4 in the block diagram of the system were estimated by input and output data. Multiple regression analyses were used.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of schizophrenics in classifying pictures of various facial expressions. Schizophrenics were divided into five groups according to the duration of their hospitalization. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to look at the pictures of three different kinds of facial expressions, anger, delight (laughing) and sadness (crying), and classify them into any categories they like. In comparison with normals, schizophrenics had a difficulty in recognizing the differences in the various facial expressions. In the second experiment, subjects were instructed to look at the same pictures and classify them into three groups of different facial expressions. In this case, schizophrenics were able to classify them almost as well as normals.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial localization accompanied with gross motor action in the extended space. A goal-directed method was used for this purpose. Subjects were instructed to see the point of goal and then to walk exactly as straight as possible to it blindfolded. It had been assumed that the degree of deviation was only dependent on walking distance. Two experiments were carried out. The main results were as follows: (a) Arrival deviation became greater in longer distances walked and (b) in the case of the distance walked being fixed, arrival deviation became greater in long goal-distance. When deviations of each condition in the same distances walked were compared, such conditions as long goaldistance had greater deviation than such conditions as short goal-distance.