This study examined whether the functional field of view was shrunk by negative emotion. The functional field of view was determined in terms of the number detection task, in which a number presented for a brief exposure peripherally in one of the four video screen corners. Participants watched either negative emotional or neutral event on the screen. Emotion was evaluated by means of self-ratings of mood adjective checklist, and the results showed that tensional arousal increased in participants who watched the negative emotional event. After watching the video participants were asked to report whether they noticed the number. Participants who watched the emotional event were able to detect fewer numbers than participants who watched the neutral event. This result suggests that the functional field of view shrank because of negative emotion. Peripheral memory decrement reported in previous studies might be due to the shrinkage of the functional field of view.
This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an “environment game, ” in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated; in “free rider” condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in “loafing” condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, “Bad Apple Effect” was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them.
A number of 1 604 respondents, divided into six age-categories, answered a questionnaire to examine the sources of self-knowledge as defined and measured by Schoeneman's method, and the cultural view of self measured by Takata's scale. The results revealed that adolescent categories displayed the strongest self-critical and interdependent tendencies, but referred to social sources (e.g., social feedback and social comparison) for self-knowledge least. On the contrary, adult categories were the most likely to refer to social sources in spite of their independent and self-enhancement tendencies. The results suggest that, positive self-images depend strongly on reference to social sources in Japanese culture, and that the independent construal of self, which is a dominant characteristic of Japanese people, is highly active in the adolescence period.
The time required in judging if two probes are on the same curve increased monotonically with the separation of the probes along that curve. This process is called “curve tracing” (Jolicoeur, Ullman & Mackay, 1986). In this study we examined whether curve tracing would occur on a three-dimensionally presented curve with depth variation. By comparing the performance on depth varying and no depth varying stimuli, we examined the properties of three-dimensional curve tracing. The mean RT on three-dimensional stimuli increased monotonically as the distance between two probes increased, which indicates that curve tracing also occurs on three-dimensional stimuli. The mean RT on three-dimensional stimuli was longer than that on two-dimensional stimuli. Our results suggest that three-dimensional structure of the stimuli caused additional costs on curve tracing.
A confirmatory approach to the positioning method (Toyoda, 2001) that can be used for analyzing three-mode multivariate data measured by the semantic differential (SD) method is considered. Two examples of the confirmatory method are given to demonstrate the applicability of the model. The first is a method to test the difference of image, between an experimental group and a control group. The second is a method to evaluate cognitive maps that are drawn subjectively. The conventional standard methods are not capable of solving these problems.
The effect of exposure duration of test stimulus on the decay rate in short-term visual memory (STVM) was investigated in a same-different task. In the model, it is assumed that memory noise, the variance of each convex value represented in STVM, increases with time, which causes the decay in STVM. In recognition experiments, the results showed that the decay rate is lower for longer exposure duration regardless of pattern complexity. Furthermore, the decay lasted gradually for 16s with exposure duration of 1 200ms, which suggests that prolonged exposure largely acts to reduce the decay rate but does not prevent the decay itself. These experimental data were well predicted by the model, which clearly indicates that memory noise increases as a linear function of retention interval and that the rate of increase of memory noise is inversely proportional to exposure duration. These results are interpreted by an extension of the integration model of Signal Detection Theory: The number of mental scanning, N, monotonically increases with an increase in exposure duration, s, and increase of memory noise is inversely proportional to N, so memory sensitivity d′ is predicted to be multiplied by √s.
This study examined the relationship between cooperation and trust in interpersonal trust formation. Previous studies of trust and cooperation using prisoner's dilemma (PD) games failed, methodologically as well as conceptually, to distinguish the former from the latter. In response to the criticism on the use of iterated PD games, and for the purpose of investigating dynamic relationship between trust and cooperation, an improvement in research methodology was recently proposed: namely, PD with choice of dependence (PD/D; Kakiuchi & Yamagishi, 1997; Yamagishi & Kakiuchi, 2000). We conducted an experiment to compare formation of trust relations in PD and PD/D. Result indicated a higher level of cooperation in PD/D than in PD. Further analysis of strategies used to build trustful relationship, where two partners trusted each other and reciprocated the other's trusting behavior, revealed that participants in PD/D adopted “cautious and unconditional cooperation strategy” rather than TFT strategy.
The present study investigated age differences in constructive activity, using three different tasks: the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Block Design, and Benton's 3D Construction tests. Participants were 116 healthy adults, ages ranging from 25 to 74 years. Results of the ROCF test failed to show any age difference in test scores among the participants up to early 60's, task completion time among those up to early 50's, and strategy among all participants. However, results of the Block Design test showed age differences in test score, task completion time, and strategy among all participants. Results of the 3D Construction test failed to show any age difference in test score among the participants up to early 60's, task completion time among those up to early 50's, but showed age differences in strategy among all participants. These findings suggest that it is necessary to take into account task-specific age differences in constructive skills, when evaluating constructive disabilities.
This study examined what types of comprehension strategies promote the spontaneous transfer in a later problem solving task. In Experiment 1, 40 undergraduates read and comprehended an abstract text (cooperatively with a partner or individually) with a think-aloud method, and solved a target problem later. The comprehension processes for the text were found to be classified into three categories; GID (generate examples, integrate them, and develop them into other examples) type, GI (generate examples and integrate them, but not develop them into other examples) type, and GN (generate examples but not integrate them) type. The learners of GID type performed better than the others in the transfer task. In Experiment 2, 66 undergraduates read one of three types of texts composed in accordance with the comprehension processes found in Experiment 1, and solved the target problem. None of the types of texts promoted spontaneous transfer in the target problem. These results suggest that learning with GID strategy leads to spontaneous transfer only if learners spontaneously produce elaborations.
This study investigated ecological validity of Cairns and Cammock's (1978) MFF-20, a revised version of Matching Familiar Figures Test, as an instrument to assess reflection-impulsivity. Data of 162 first-grade and 177 fourth-grade Japanese school children were analyzed, and partial correlations were computed among the variables: two MFF-20 subscores (Impulsivity and Efficiency), teacher ratings of classroom behavior and school achievement. The last two were measured twice, over a two-year period, as criterion variables. The effect of intelligence, assessed with Kyoken Group Intelligence Test, was partialled out. Analysis of partial correlations showed that the Impulsivity score of the first graders had stronger correlations than their Efficiency score with the criterion variables for thier first and second grades. On the other hand, it was the Efficiency score of the fourth graders that became more dominant, in terms of correlations with the criterion variables, which were assessed in the fourth and fifth graders.
This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1 500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that “maternity” and “trustworthiness” were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.