This study of 241 female college students examined the relationship among binge-eating, dieting, and stress, assessed at two different times. The results of path analysis showed significant paths both from binge-eating to dieting and from dieting to binge-eating were significant. In other words, binge-eating often results in dieting, and dieting often results in binge-eating, which becomes a vicious circle. The path from stress to binge-eating was significant, but not the path from binge-eating as a way of coping.
The influence of environmental context on false recognition was investigated by using two lists with different associative structures. Sixteen auditory to-be-remembered lists were presented to the participants. Eight were associated lists, consisting of items that were associated with lure items which were not presented in the study session. The remaining eight were category lists, consisting of category examples. A lure item of each category list was one of the category examples. In the study session, participants were asked to judge how imaginable the items were. The next day, participants engaged in a word recognition test that included the studied items and the lure items. The test was administered visually on a computer display either in the same room as the study session or in a different room. In the associated list condition, reinstatement of the environmental context increased both correct and false recognition. In the category list condition, only false recognition was increased by reinstatement of the environmental context. These results indicate that the reinstatement of the environmental context facilitates false recognition.
Age-related changes in processing and retention in visual working memory were examined using visual stimuli that do not allow for verbal-name coding. Participants ranged in age from their 20s to 70s, and data was analyzed using the cross-sectional cohort method. The N-back task was used, and results from the 0-back task (recognition of the last of the continuously presented stimuli) and the 1-back task (recognition of the penultimate stimulus) were compared. The results showed a sudden decrease in performance on the 0-back task for participants in their 60s, and a relatively linear decrease on the 1-back task from the 30s. These results suggest that aging-related changes in visual working memory reflect a decrease in processing speed. They also suggests that the functions of “simple retention” and “processive retention” are different.
This study identified factors related to the satisfaction with collaborative problem solving efforts and investigated the differential effects of these factors. In Study 1, a total of 240 university students participated in research. The research was a qualitative data analysis of group members' descriptions of their collaborative problem solving experiences. The results suggested that satisfaction was determined by a number of factors, especially changes in self-cognition, changes in others' cognition, and inclusion of the other in the self. In Study 2, the differential effects of each factor related to task conditions were examined. The factor of changes in self-cognition and inclusion of the other in the self influenced satisfaction, regardless of the task condition. In a well-defined task, group and personal performance were increasing members' satisfaction. For an ill-defined task, trust of the other members was increasing members' satisfaction. We concluded that satisfaction with collaborative problem solving was influenced by not only task performance, but also emotional and cognitive factors.
Does amodal completion occur homogeneously across the visual field? Rensink and Enns (1998) found that visual search for efficiently-detected fragments became inefficient when observers perceived the fragments as a partially-occluded version of a distractor due to a rapid completion process. We examined the effect of target eccentricity in Rensink and Enns's tasks and a few additional tasks by magnifying the stimuli in the peripheral visual field to compensate for the loss of spatial resolution (M-scaling; Rovamo & Virsu, 1979). We found that amodal completion disrupted the efficient search for the salient fragments (i.e., target) even when the target was presented at high eccentricity (within 17 deg). In addition, the configuration effect of the fragments, which produced amodal completion, increased with eccentricity while the same target was detected efficiently at the lowest eccentricity. This eccentricity effect is different from a previously-reported eccentricity effect where M-scaling was effective (Carrasco & Frieder, 1997). These findings indicate that the visual system has a basis for rapid completion across the visual field, but the stimulus representations constructed through amodal completion have eccentricity-dependent properties.
When does a person who has been trusted reciprocate that trust? Kiyonari, Yamagishi, Cook, and Cheshire (2006) compared behavior in trust games and faith games and showed that in one-shot games, players who were trusted did not reciprocate that trust. In an experiment using trust games and dictator games, we examined what type of trust would elicit reciprocation of that trust by the trustee. In the experiment, information about the reason to trust the truster was manipulated to separate trust types into “trust attributable to the trustee” and “trust attributable to the truster.” We determined how much reciprocation was elicited by each of these types of trust. The results showed that trustees are more likely to reciprocate trust for “trust attributable to the trustee” than for “trust attributable to the truster.”
This research examined the relationship of occupational and organizational commitments with professional activities and burnout tendencies in nurses. Nurses who have worked in a large urban hospital were asked to complete a series of questionnaires. The 341 participants were all female (mean age=32.8 years; mean career=11.2years). Factor analysis revealed three independent components of the occupational commitment scale and four components of the organizational commitment scale. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that each of the occupational and organizational components contributed independently to the predictions of professional activities and burnout tendencies.
Undergraduate students at two universities, designated as Groups A and B, participated in this study. The Mean scores on a visual memory span test and a visual working memory test of Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B. Participants individually watched a CRT display showing two cars that were moving in the same direction on two parallel tracks for various durations and distances. They were asked to identify the car that had traveled for the longer duration and to explain the reasons for their decision. Then, they completed an instructional booklet that taught about planning to make judgments of duration for movement. Finally, they did the duration judgment tasks for the car's movements again. The following are the main results. (a) The number of undergraduates who answered correctly increased after their learning experience. (b)The rates of correct responses were significantly related to the memory test scores. Furthermore, the data suggested that larger memory capacity could compensate for poorer planning. (c)The two groups differed in strategies for the duration judgment tasks.
Images of “seion” (unvoiced sound), “dakuon” (voiced sound), and “handakuon” (semi-voiced sound) in Japanese onomatopoeia were investigated by using two methods: the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the semantic differential (SD). Undergraduate students (n=25) completed the six kinds of IATs and SD questionnaires related to the images. The results indicated that “dakuon” was evaluated as being more dynamic and heavier, and “seion” and “handakuon” were evaluated as being more static and lighter by both the IAT and SD methods. However, “seion” was evaluated as being more static and lighter than “handakuon” by the IAT, whereas “handakuon” was evaluated as being more static and lighter than “seion” by the SD method. The differences in evaluation by the two methods are discussed.
We investigated physiological and behavioral characteristics of socially stressed animals in a resident-intruder paradigm. ICR male mice (resident, n=14) were exposed individually to a novel male conspecific (intruder, n=14) in their homecage for 30 min. Along with behavioral analyses, the skin temperatures of both the resident and the intruder were measured simultaneously using a multipoint radiation thermometer. There were no significant differences between the resident and intruder in the amount of locomotion, flight and aggressive behaviors. The mean skin temperature of the residents during the interaction was higher than before the interaction. In addition, the skin temperatures of the intruders were consistently higher than the residents. The results suggest that social stress causes elevation in skin temperature as well as stress-induced hyperthermia in core temperature. Moreover, infrared radiation thermometers may provide an alternative means of measuring physiological parameters of two (or more) subjects simultaneously in the study of animal social behavior.