Two experiments using rats as subjects examined effects of item-arrangement on acquisition and extinction in serial learning. In Experiment 1, Group A received series of 16-0-16 and 1-0-1 food pellets in a runway, while Group D received 1-0-16 and 16-0-1 series. Both groups manifested a remote anticipation of the third item on Run 2, and current anticipation of the third item on Run 3. In extinction phase, resistance was greater in Group D than Group A. These results indicate that the first item signaled not only the second item, but also the third item. In Experiment 2, two of the four groups were trained with either of the following monotonic series: 0-16-0-8-0-4-0-2-0-1 (Group M16) or 0-1-0-2-0-4-0-8-0-16 (Group M1), while the other two groups were given one of the following nonmonotonic series: 0-16-0-2-0-4-0-8-0-1 (Group NM16) or 0-1-0-8-0-4-0-2-0-16 (Group NM1). In extinction phase, Group M16 showed the least resistance. These results are discussed mainly on the basis of remote association view and structural complexity theory of serial learning.
This study researched the effects of cognitive variables on recycling behavior, as well as effects of various media of influence on the cognition and behavior. According to Hirose (1994), the decision making process for recycling consists of two steps. The first leads to goal intention of an ecological lifestyle. The second is related to behavior intention of recycling in line with the goal intention. Mass media, such as newspaper and TV, are thought to influence beliefs about environmental problems, including three determinants of goal intention: perception of seriousness, responsibility, and effectiveness. Personal media, such as personal contacts with pro-environmental activists, are thought to influence evaluation of behavior, including three determinants of behavior intention: evaluation of feasibility, cost and benefits, and social norms. Local media, such as municipal announcement and circular, are hypothesized to have a mixed effect of the two. Path analysis indicated that goal intention affected recycling behavior through behavior intention. Effects of the three media of influence on the cognitive variables were also consistent with the hypothesis.
This study examined the difference between preschool (6-year-olds) children and adults in semantic information processing in line-drawn picture naming, using two types of Stroop-like picture naming tasks. In Experiment 1, voices (i.e., lexical information), and in Experiment 2, pictures (i.e., semantic information) were used as distracters. Subjects were asked to name target pictures as quickly as possible, ignoring distracters. To clarify the effect of semantic relations on the amount of interference, four types of target-distracter semantic relations were used as experimental conditions: same stimulus (SS), same category (SC), different category (DC), and control (C). To investigate the time course of processing, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and distracter was varied. The results indicated that the patterns of reaction time showed more remarkable difference between children and adults in Experiment 1 than in Experiment 2. These results were discussed on the basis of Glaser and Glaser (1989)'s model in which semantic memory and lexicon were separate.
Following Tomlin and Passman (1991), this study examined whether advice of paternal and maternal grandmothers had different effects on mothers' disciplinary behavior of their children. Mothers, grandmothers, and 4-7-year-old children from 22 three-generational families participated in the study. Whenever the child made an error during a task, the reward was to be reduced. The mother decided the amount to be reduced on advice of the grandmother, who then was informed of her decision. In fact, however, the child's performance, grandmother's advice, and disciplinary decision were manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed that mothers living with paternal grandmothers modified their decision in accordance with the advice, while mothers living with maternal grandmothers did not. The mother's decision had similar effects on subsequent advice by the paternal or maternal grandmother, both of whom tended to endorse her decision. Thus, paternal and maternal grandmothers' advice had different effects on maternal disciplinary behavior of the children.
This study investigated the relationship between affective properties of stimuli and their retention. Thirty sentences describing various scenes were chosen as stimuli to elicit affects which are experienced in daily life. Ninety undergraduates rated each sentence on the following eight dimensions: anxiety, hostility, boredom, liveliness, calmness, friendliness, concentration, and surprise. One week after participating in the scene rating task, participants were given an incidental free recall test, in which they were instructed to recall a word or phrase describing each scene. Results indicated that memory for affectively pleasant scenes was superior to that for unpleasant scenes. However, a discriminant analysis on the kind of emotion activated indicated that the relaxant-tensive dimension determined the retention of the stimulus sentences more than the dimension of pleasantness.
The aim of the present study was to show relationship between acculturation attitudes and mental health of international students in their first year in Japan. Of 53 new international students at a university, 50 (36 male and 14 female), 19.2 years old on average, completed a questionnaire in May (one month after the arrival), October (six months later), and March of the following year (the last month of the first academic year). The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Acculturation Attitude Scale and SCL-90-R Mental Health Scale. The former was based on Kim (1988) and measured four types of acculturation attitudes: Integration, Assimilation, Separation, and Marginalization (Berry, 1990, 1992; Berry, Trimble, & Olmedo, 1986). Results indicated that effects of acculturation attitudes on mental health of international students became clear in the last month of their first year. It is argued that helping students' integration attitude has beneficial effects on their mental health.
Based on the study of Davis and Jahnke (1991), we examined preference of division ratios using a production method, in which subjects were asked to draw a horizontal or vertical dividing line on each stimulus figure. The subjects were sixty three college students and forty five kindergarten children. The stimulus figures were a square and six kinds of rectangles. The results revealed the following points: (1) For both college students and kindergarten children, the frequencies of the 1:1 dividing ratio (the unity ratio) were the highest. (2) For the college students, the shorter the side which the dividing line meets at right angles became, the stronger the preference to the unity ratio got. (3) For both the students and the children, the frequencies of the 1:1 dividing ratio for the square were the highest.
To assess the validity of the dominant view that the “national character” of the Japanese is more collective than that of the Americans, this paper reviews ten recent empirical studies that compared these two nations regarding individualism/collectivism. Two experimental studies on conformity and five questionnaire studies found no substantial differences. Two experimental studies on cooperation and one questionnaire study found that Japanese college students were more individualistic than American counterparts. The only study that supported the dominant view (Hofstede, 1980) is found to have little validity because its “individualism factor” is virtually unrelated to the common definition of individualism/collectivism. It is shown that the past collective behavior of the Japanese can be interpreted as a universal reaction to the international situations that required cooperation inside Japan and have recently changed drastically. A review of the past literature that produced the dominant view suggests that it was formed through the fundamental attribution error and other judgmental biases.