Two experiments were conducted to assess litter control at a riverside location. Experiment 1 examined the effects of a security camera (presence/absence), past littering (presence/absence), and environmental features (tussock/plain ground/flowerbed). Two scenes containing combinations of these factors were presented. Participants chose the scene in which they felt it was to easier to litter. Participants also reported their emotional response to the presence/absence of a security camera and environmental features in scenes with litter. The results revealed that the presence of a security camera, no past littering, flowerbeds, and plain ground inhibited littering. Littering in the presence of a security camera facilitated discomfort, anger, and shame, and littering in flowerbeds caused discomfort, anger, shame, and sadness. Using a similar method, Experiment 2 addressed the particular effects of a security camera combined with other factors: past littering, environmental features, and signboards (no sign/sign with eyes/security camera images). The results demonstrated the effectiveness of a security camera, no past littering, flowerbeds, plain ground, signboards presenting eyes, and images from a security camera in preventing littering.
According to dual process theory, there are two systems in the mind: an intuitive and automatic System 1 and a logical and effortful System 2. While many previous studies about number estimation have focused on simple heuristics and automatic processes, the deliberative System 2 process has not been sufficiently studied. This study focused on the System 2 process for large number estimation. First, we described an estimation process based on participants’ verbal reports. The task, corresponding to the problem-solving process, consisted of creating subgoals, retrieving values, and applying operations. Second, we investigated the influence of such deliberative process by System 2 on intuitive estimation by System 1, using anchoring effects. The results of the experiment showed that the System 2 process could mitigate anchoring effects.
Previous studies on generalized exchange have argued that group plays an important role in the emergence of cooperative society. To examine to what extent the role of a group is important, we conducted computer simulations in which players decide whether to give resources to members of a society composed of two groups. We examined whether a society consisting of any of the possible conceivable strategies (65536 strategies total) could resist invasion by an unconditional defector (ALLD) and an unconditional cooperator (ALLC). The results showed that universalist strategies, which give resources to both in-group members and out-group members equally, and in-group favoring strategies, which give resources to in-group members more than outgroup members, could resist invasion. Furthermore, we found that in-group favoring strategies could exclude ALLC from the circle of resource flow more easily than universalist strategies.These results imply that it may be necessary to employ an in-group favoring strategy that utilizes the group membership information of other people in order to maintain generalized exchange in a society composed of two groups.
Three experiments examined the types of encoding that were effective for the recognition of spatial and color information. In Experiments 1 and 2, four experimental groups (each asked to form a different type of mental image of stimuli) and one control group (not asked to form an image) were presented spatial configuration patterns with different numbers of black dots. In both experiments, for the group that formed motor images with actual movement, the average score was higher for stimuli with a larger number of dots than for stimuli with fewer dots. Two groups, which formed dynamic visual images and motor images with no actual movement, respectively, showed similar limited effects. In Experiment 3, the five groups were presented two types of chromatic stimuli (colored panels and colored dots). Static visual images were effective for encoding the colored panels; however, static visual images and motor images with actual movement were effective for encoding the colored dots. These results suggest that motor and dynamic encodings facilitate memory for objects where spatial configuration is important for identification, while static visual images of the whole picture facilitate memory for objects where multiple colors are significant.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the motivational influences of information about task difficulty on task effort. In both studies, an anagram task was used as the experimental task and task motivation was measured with rating scales. In experiment 1, 60 participants were presented anagrams labeled as “easy” or “difficult”, both of which were actually impossible to solve. Results revealed that participants low in intrinsic motivation put in more effort on anagrams labeled “easy” than “difficult”. In experiment 2, 60 participants were assigned to two groups (30 each) and task outcomes were manipulated (positive and negative). Results revealed that participants with positive outcomes could maintain task motivation and put in more effort on the challenging anagrams than those with negative outcomes. These results suggest that information about task difficulty can promote regulation of task effort and task motivation for sustained studying, especially for computer-based learning.
The purpose of this study was to examine how university social capital and subjective social capital could predict undergraduate students’ subjective well-being including depression, school satisfaction, and life satisfaction. In this cross-sectional study, we conducted multilevel structural equation modeling on the data of 2,021 students at 38 universities in Japan. At the university level, we found the associations between social capital (fellows) and depression, social capital (classmates) and life satisfaction, and social capital (faculty) and school satisfaction. At the student level, all subjective social capital (fellows, classmates, and faculty) were associated with all the factors of subjective well-being. These results suggest the influence of university social capital and that of subjective social capital are associated with students’ subjective well-being.
The domain-specific approach to socialization has classified socialization mechanisms into several domains, including the protection and control domains, and postulates that parent–child interactions that promote socialization in each domain are different. However, there are few empirical investigations of the domain–specific approach. This study examined whether parental parenting attitudes affected early adolescents’ empathy, including empathic concern and perspective taking, and social cognitive biases, including cognitive distortion and general beliefs about aggression, through the mediation of adolescents’ perceptions. Junior high school students and their parents (N = 448) completed a questionnaire. Results of structural equation modeling indicated (a) parental acceptance and control increased empathy via adolescents’ perceived acceptance and control, (b) parental acceptance and control decreased social cognitive biases via adolescents’ perceived acceptance and control, and (c) parental control directly increased empathy. In addition, multiple group analyses indicated the validity of gender- and age-invariant models. These findings suggest that parental parenting attitudes are essential for appropriate socialization during early adolescence.
The purpose of this study is to show the differences in impression evaluation among different media stimuli for housing space. We conducted an impression evaluation experiment for a pamphlet, material samples, and real rooms for media stimulation using an SD method with 85 participants to extract similar and the dissimilar impression evaluations among the media stimuli. The results indicated that the evaluations for real rooms were more positive than those for a pamphlet or material samples as a whole; especially, for brightness and youthfulness among different forms of stimulation. The evaluation structure by factor analysis of a pamphlet and real rooms were almost same; however, those by material samples were different, suggesting that a pamphlet is useful to express a real room, but material samples assist in stimulation of the residential space.
The purpose of this study was to translate the Experience of Close Relationship-Relationship Structure (ECRRS) and evaluate its validity. In study 1 (N = 982), evidence based internal structure (factor structure, internal consistency, and correlation among sub-scales) and evidence based relations to other variables (depression, reassurance seeking and self-esteem) were confirmed. In study 2 (N = 563), evidence based on internal structure was reconfirmed, and evidence based relations to other variables (IWMS, RQ, and ECR-GO) were confirmed. In study 3 (N = 342), evidence based internal structure (test-retest reliability) was confirmed. Based on these results, we concluded that ECR-RS was valid for measuring adult attachment style.